Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, Jané-Llopis E, Abrahams-Gessel S, Bloom LR, Fathima S, et al. Global economic burden non communicable diseases. Geneva: World Economic Forum. .
Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Medical clinics of North America. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95:875–92.
Karelis AD, Faraj M, Bastard J-P, St-Pierre DH, Brochu M, Prud’homme D, et al. The metabolically healthy but obese individual presents a favorable inflammation profile. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4145–50.
Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2006;444:875–80.
Wang Z, Nakayama T. Inflammation, a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Mediators of Inflammation. 2010;2010:e535918.
Bordeaux BC, Qayyum R, Yanek LR, Vaidya D, Becker LC, Faraday N, et al. Effect of obesity on platelet reactivity and response to low-dose aspirin. Prev Cardiol. 2010;13:56–62.
Ridker PM, Cannon CP, Morrow D, Rifai N, Rose LM, McCabe CH, et al. C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:20–8.
Ioachimescu AG, Brennan DM, Hoar BM, Hazen SL, Hoogwerf BJ. Serum uric acid is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a preventive cardiology information system (PreCIS) database cohort study. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:623–30.
Wang JG, Staessen JA, Fagard RH, Birkenhäger WH, Gong L, Liu L. Prognostic significance of serum creatinine and uric acid in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;37:1069–74.
Appiah D, Schreiner PJ, MacLehose RF, Folsom AR. Association of plasma γ’ fibrinogen with incident cardiovascular disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2700–6.
Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J. 2012;33:1635–701.
Bournat JC, Brown CW. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17:446–52.
Zamora-Mendoza R, Rosas-Vargas H, Ramos-Cervantes MT, Garcia-Zuniga P, Perez-Lorenzana H, Mendoza-Lorenzo P, et al. Dysregulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis modulators in adipose tissue of obese children. International Journal of Obesity. 2018;42:618–24.
Brown DA, Perry JB, Allen ME, Sabbah HN, Stauffer BL, Shaikh SR, et al. Expert consensus document: mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2017;14:238–50.
Zharikov S, Shiva S. Platelet mitochondrial function: from regulation of thrombosis to biomarker of disease. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:118–23.
Badimon L, Hernández Vera R, Padró T, Vilahur G. Antithrombotic therapy in obesity. Thromb Haemost. 2013;110:681–8.
Shock LS, Thakkar PV, Peterson EJ, Moran RG, Taylor SM. DNA methyltransferase 1, cytosine methylation, and cytosine hydroxymethylation in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108:3630–5.
Byun H-M, Panni T, Motta V, Hou L, Nordio F, Apostoli P, et al. Effects of airborne pollutants on mitochondrial DNA methylation. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 2013;10:18.
Janssen BG, Byun H-M, Gyselaers W, Lefebvre W, Baccarelli AA, Nawrot TS. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: an ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study. Epigenetics. 2015;10:536–44.
Sun X, Vaghjiani V, Jayasekara WSN, Cain JE, St. John JC. The degree of mitochondrial DNA methylation in tumor models of glioblastoma and osteosarcoma. Clin Epigenetics. 2018;10(1):157.
Baccarelli AA, Byun H-M. Platelet mitochondrial DNA methylation: a potential new marker of cardiovascular disease. Clin Epigenetics. 2015;7:44.
Horvath S, Erhart W, Brosch M, Ammerpohl O, von Schönfels W, Ahrens M, et al. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15538–43.
Kim M, Long TI, Arakawa K, Wang R, Yu MC, Laird PW. DNA methylation as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. PLOS ONE. 2010;5:e9692.
Lind L, Ingelsson E, Sundström J, Siegbahn A, Lampa E. Methylation-based estimated biological age and cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018;48.
Roetker Nicholas S., Pankow James S., Bressler Jan, Morrison Alanna C., Boerwinkle Eric. Prospective study of epigenetic age acceleration and incidence of cardiovascular disease outcomes in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Circ Genom Precis Med. 2018;11:e001937.
Zhang Y, Wilson R, Heiss J, Breitling LP, Saum K-U, Schöttker B, et al. DNA methylation signatures in peripheral blood strongly predict all-cause mortality. Nat Comm. 2017;8:14617.
Rosa-Garrido M, Chapski DJ, Vondriska TM. Epigenomes in cardiovascular disease. Circ Res. 2018;122:1586–607.
Zhang W, Song M, Qu J, Liu G-H. Epigenetic modifications in cardiovascular aging and diseases. Circ Res. 2018;123:773–86.
Anderson OS, Sant KE, Dolinoy DC. Nutrition and epigenetics: an interplay of dietary methyl donors, one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:853–9.
Gao X, Jia M, Zhang Y, Breitling LP, Brenner H. DNA methylation changes of whole blood cells in response to active smoking exposure in adults: a systematic review of DNA methylation studies. Clin Epigenetics. 2015;7:113.
Joehanes R, Just AC, Marioni RE, Pilling LC, Reynolds LM, Mandaviya PR, et al. Epigenetic signatures of cigarette smoking. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2016;9:436–47.
Rönn T, Volkov P, Gillberg L, Kokosar M, Perfilyev A, Jacobsen AL, et al. Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3792–813.
Wahl S, Drong A, Lehne B, Loh M, Scott WR, Kunze S, et al. Epigenome-wide association study of body mass index, and the adverse outcomes of adiposity. Nature. 2017;541:81–6.
Mendelson MM, Marioni RE, Joehanes R, Liu C, Hedman ÅK, Aslibekyan S, et al. Association of body mass index with DNA methylation and gene expression in blood cells and relations to cardiometabolic disease: a Mendelian randomization approach. PLOS Medicine. 2017;14:e1002215.
D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117:743–53.
Conroy RM, Pyörälä K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:987–1003.
Byun H, Colicino E, Trevisi L, Fan T, Christiani DC, Baccarelli AA. Effects of air pollution and blood mitochondrial DNA methylation on markers of heart rate variability. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;22:5(4).
Breton CV, Song AY, Xiao J, Kim S-J, Mehta HH, Wan J, et al. Effects of air pollution on mitochondrial function, mitochondrial DNA methylation, and mitochondrial peptide expression. Mitochondrion. 2019;46:22–9.
Dostal V, Churchill MEA. Cytosine methylation of mitochondrial DNA at CpG sequences impacts transcription factor A DNA binding and transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2019;1862:598–607.
Xu Y, Li H, Hedmer M, Hossain MB, Tinnerberg H, Broberg K, et al. Occupational exposure to particles and mitochondrial DNA - relevance for blood pressure. Environ Health. 2017;9;16(1, 22).
Breton CV, Marsit CJ, Faustman E, Nadeau K, Goodrich JM, Dolinoy DC, et al. Small-magnitude effect sizes in epigenetic end points are important in children’s environmental health studies: the children’s environmental health and disease prevention research center’s epigenetics working group. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:511–26.
FAD L, Muller CP, Turner JD. DNA methylation: conducting the orchestra from exposure to phenotype? Clin Epigenetics. 2016;6;8:92.
Devall M, Roubroeks J, Mill J, Weedon M, Lunnon K. Epigenetic regulation of mitochondrial function in neurodegenerative disease: new insights from advances in genomic technologies. Neuroscience Letters. 2016;625:47–55.
Feng S, Xiong L, Ji Z, Cheng W, Yang H. Correlation between increased ND2 expression and demethylated displacement loop of mtDNA in colorectal cancer. Mol Med Rep. 2012;6:125–30.
Ghosh S, Singh KK, Sengupta S, Scaria V. Mitoepigenetics: the different shades of grey. Mitochondrion. 2015;25:60–6.
Bollati V, Iodice S, Favero C, Angelici L, Albetti B, Cacace R, et al. Susceptibility to particle health effects, miRNA and exosomes: rationale and study protocol of the SPHERE study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1137.
EAPC. HeartScore - PMS [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Feb 12]. Available from: https://heartscore.escardio.org/2012/calc.aspx?model = europelow.
WHO. ICD-9-CM [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2019 Feb 12]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd9cm.htm.
Liu B, Du Q, Chen L, Fu G, Li S, Fu L, et al. CpG methylation patterns of human mitochondrial DNA. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:srep23421.
Lambertini L, Byun H-M. Mitochondrial epigenetics and environmental exposure. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2016;3:214–24.