Tomlinson JW, Walker EA, Bujalska IJ, Draper N, Lavery GG, Cooper MS, Hewison M, Stewart PM: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response. Endocr Rev. 2004, 25: 831-866. 10.1210/er.2003-0031.
Stewart PM: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: implications for clinical medicine. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996, 44: 493-499. 10.1046/j.1365-2265.1996.716535.x.
Draper N, Stewart PM: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action. J Endocrinol. 2005, 186: 251-271. 10.1677/joe.1.06019.
DeFronzo RA, Gunnarsson R, Bjorkman O, Olsson M, Wahren J: Effects of insulin on peripheral and splanchnic glucose metabolism in noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1985, 76: 149-155. 10.1172/JCI111938.
Jang C, Obeyesekere VR, Dilley RJ, Krozowski Z, Inder WJ, Alford FP: Altered activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in skeletal muscle confers metabolic protection in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007, 92: 3314-3320. 10.1210/jc.2006-2729.
Whorwood CB, Donovan SJ, Flanagan D, Phillips DI, Byrne CD: Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in human skeletal muscle cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2002, 51: 1066-1075. 10.2337/diabetes.51.4.1066.
Hammami MM, Siiteri PK: Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human skin fibroblasts: enzymatic modulation of glucocorticoid action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991, 73: 326-334. 10.1210/jcem-73-2-326.
Sun K, Myatt L: Enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human amnion fibroblasts. Endocrinology. 2003, 144: 5568-5577. 10.1210/en.2003-0780.
Bujalska IJ, Kumar S, Stewart PM: Does central obesity reflect ‘Cushing’s disease of the omentum’?. Lancet. 1997, 349: 1210-1213. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)11222-8.
Sun K, He P, Yang K: Intracrine induction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by glucocorticoid potentiates prostaglandin production in the human chorionic trophoblast. Biol Reprod. 2002, 67: 1450-1455. 10.1095/biolreprod.102.005892.
Yang Z, Guo C, Zhu P, Li W, Myatt L, Sun K: Role of glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in the feed-forward induction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts. J Endocrinol. 2007, 195: 241-253. 10.1677/JOE-07-0303.
Gout J, Tirard J, Thevenon C, Riou JP, Begeot M, Naville D: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) regulate the basal and cAMP-induced transcription of the human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase encoding gene in adipose cells. Biochimie. 2006, 88: 1115-1124. 10.1016/j.biochi.2006.05.020.
Sai S, Esteves CL, Kelly V, Michailidou Z, Anderson K, Coll AP, Nakagawa Y, Ohzeki T, Seckl JR, Chapman KE: Glucocorticoid regulation of the promoter of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is indirect and requires CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta. Mol Endocrinol. 2008, 22: 2049-2060. 10.1210/me.2007-0489.
Bruley C, Lyons V, Worsley AG, Wilde MD, Darlington GD, Morton NM, Seckl JR, Chapman KE: A novel promoter for the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene is active in lung and is C/EBPα independent. Endocrinology. 2006, 147: 2879-2885. 10.1210/en.2005-1621.
Williams LJ, Lyons V, MacLeod I, Rajan V, Darlington GJ, Poli V, Seckl JR, Chapman KE: C/EBP regulates hepatic transcription of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. A novel mechanism for cross-talk between the C/EBP and glucocorticoid signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 30232-30239.
Yang H, Mammen J, Wei W, Menconi M, Evenson A, Fareed M, Petkova V, Hasselgren PO: Expression and activity of C/EBPbeta and delta are upregulated by dexamethasone in skeletal muscle. J Cell Physiol. 2005, 204: 219-226. 10.1002/jcp.20278.
Foley DL, Craig JM, Morley R, Olsson CA, Dwyer T, Smith K, Saffery R: Prospects for epigenetic epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2009, 169: 389-400.
Kangaspeska S, Stride B, Metivier R, Polycarpou-Schwarz M, Ibberson D, Carmouche RP, Benes V, Gannon F, Reid G: Transient cyclical methylation of promoter DNA. Nature. 2008, 452: 112-115. 10.1038/nature06640.
Metivier R, Gallais R, Tiffoche C, Le Peron C, Jurkowska RZ, Carmouche RP, Ibberson D, Barath P, Demay F, Reid G, Benes V, Jeltsch A, Gannon F, Salbert G: Cyclical DNA methylation of a transcriptionally active promoter. Nature. 2008, 452: 45-50. 10.1038/nature06544.
Rakyan VK, Beyan H, Down TA, Hawa MI, Maslau S, Aden D, Daunay A, Busato F, Mein CA, Manfras B, Dias KR, Bell CG, Tost J, Boehm BO, Beck S, Leslie RD: Identification of type 1 diabetes-associated DNA methylation variable positions that precede disease diagnosis. PLoS Genet. 2011, 7: e1002300. 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002300.
Zilberfarb V, Siquier K, Strosberg AD, Issad T: Effect of dexamethasone on adipocyte differentiation markers and tumour necrosis factor-alpha expression in human PAZ6 cells. Diabetologia. 2001, 44: 377-386. 10.1007/s001250051630.
Alikhani-Koopaei R, Fouladkou F, Frey FJ, Frey BM: Epigenetic regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression. J Clin Invest. 2004, 114: 1146-1157.
Friso S, Pizzolo F, Choi SW, Guarini P, Castagna A, Ravagnani V, Carletto A, Pattini P, Corrocher R, Olivieri O: Epigenetic control of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 gene promoter is related to human hypertension. Atherosclerosis. 2008, 199: 323-327. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.11.029.
Barres R, Osler ME, Yan J, Rune A, Fritz T, Caidahl K, Krook A, Zierath JR: Non-CpG methylation of the PGC-1.alpha; promoter through DNMT3B controls mitochondrial density. Cell Metab. 2009, 10: 189-198. 10.1016/j.cmet.2009.07.011.
Brons C, Jacobsen S, Nilsson E, Ronn T, Jensen CB, Storgaard H, Poulsen P, Groop L, Ling C, Astrup A, Vaag A: Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in human muscle is influenced by high-fat overfeeding in a birth-weight-dependent manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010, 95: 3048-3056. 10.1210/jc.2009-2413.
Jang C, Obeyesekere VR, Dilley RJ, Alford FP, Inder WJ: 11Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is expressed and is biologically active in human skeletal muscle. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006, 65: 800-805. 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02669.x.
Levy JC, Matthews DR, Hermans MP: Correct homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) evaluation uses the computer program. Diabetes Care. 1998, 21: 2191-2192. 10.2337/diacare.21.12.2191.
Ehrich M, Nelson MR, Stanssens P, Zabeau M, Liloglou T, Xinarianos G, Cantor CR, Field JK, van den Boom D: Quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation patterns by base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005, 102: 15785-15790. 10.1073/pnas.0507816102.
Wong N, Morley R, Saffery R, Craig J: Archived Guthrie blood spots as a novel source for quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Biotechniques. 2008, 45: 423-424. 10.2144/000112945. 426, 428, passim