Cojocaru M, Cojocaru IM, Silosi I, Vrabie CD. Manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Maedica (Buchar). 2011;6:330–6.
Azevedo PC, Murphy G, Isenberg DA. Pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus: the challenges ahead. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1134:1–16.
Sawalha AH, Harley JB. Antinuclear autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004;16:534–40.
Malik S, Bruner GR, Williams-Weese C, Feo L, Scofield RH, Reichlin M, Harley JB, Sawalha AH. Presence of anti-la autoantibody is associated with a lower risk of nephritis and seizures in lupus patients. Lupus. 2007;16:863–6.
Reichlin M, Wolfson-Reichlin M. Correlations of anti-dsDNA and anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies with lupus nephritis. Clin Immunol. 2003;108:69–72.
To CH, Petri M. Is antibody clustering predictive of clinical subsets and damage in systemic lupus erythematosus? Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:4003–10.
Okamura M, Kanayama Y, Amastu K, Negoro N, Kohda S, Takeda T, Inoue T. Significance of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to double stranded and single stranded DNA in patients with lupus nephritis: correlation with severity of renal histology. Ann Rheum Dis. 1993;52:14–20.
Isenberg DA, Manson JJ, Ehrenstein MR, Rahman A. Fifty years of anti-ds DNA antibodies: are we approaching journey’s end? Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:1052–6.
Faria AC, Barcellos KS, Andrade LE. Longitudinal fluctuation of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:1267–72.
Fisher DE, Reeves WH, Wisniewolski R, Lahita RG, Chiorazzi N. Temporal shifts from Sm to ribonucleoprotein reactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1985;28:1348–55.
Barada FA Jr, Andrews BS, Davis JS, Taylor RP. Antibodies to Sm in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Correlation of Sm antibody titers with disease activity and other laboratory parameters. Arthritis Rheum. 1981;24:1236–44.
Praprotnik S, Bozic B, Kveder T, Rozman B. Fluctuation of anti-Ro/SS-A antibody levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren’s syndrome: a prospective study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1999;17:63–8.
Tench CM, Isenberg DA. The variation in anti-ENA characteristics between different ethnic populations with systemic lupus erythematosus over a 10-year period. Lupus. 2000;9:374–6.
Isenberg DA, Garton M, Reichlin MW, Reichlin M. Long-term follow-up of autoantibody profiles in black female lupus patients and clinical comparison with Caucasian and Asian patients. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36:229–33.
Petri M, Perez-Gutthann S, Longenecker JC, Hochberg M. Morbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus: role of race and socioeconomic status. Am J Med. 1991;91:345–53.
Mohan C, Assassi S. Biomarkers in rheumatic diseases: how can they facilitate diagnosis and assessment of disease activity? BMJ. 2015;351:h5079.
Zieve GW, Khusial PR. The anti-Sm immune response in autoimmunity and cell biology. Autoimmun Rev. 2003;2:235–40.
Arroyo-Avila M, Santiago-Casas Y, McGwin G Jr, Cantor RS, Petri M, Ramsey-Goldman R, Reveille JD, Kimberly RP, Alarcon GS, Vila LM, Brown EE. Clinical associations of anti-smith antibodies in PROFILE: a multi-ethnic lupus cohort. Clin Rheumatol. 2015;34:1217–23.
Wallace DJ, Stohl W, Furie RA, Lisse JR, McKay JD, Merrill JT, Petri MA, Ginzler EM, Chatham WW, McCune WJ, et al. A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:1168–78.
Sjowall C, Sturm M, Dahle C, Bengtsson AA, Jonsen A, Sturfelt G, Skogh T. Abnormal antinuclear antibody titers are less common than generally assumed in established cases of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:1994–2000.
Cozzani E, Drosera M, Gasparini G, Parodi A. Serology of lupus Erythematosus: correlation between Immunopathological features and clinical aspects. Autoimmune Dis. 2014;2014:321359.
Slater CA, Davis RB, Shmerling RH. Antinuclear antibody testing. A study of clinical utility. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1421–5.
Abeles AM, Abeles M. The clinical utility of a positive antinuclear antibody test result. Am J Med. 2013;126:342–8.
Egner W. The use of laboratory tests in the diagnosis of SLE. J Clin Pathol. 2000;53:424–32.
Grolleau-Julius A, Ray D, Yung RL. The role of epigenetics in aging and autoimmunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010;39:42–50.
Zhao M, Wang Z, Yung S, Lu Q. Epigenetic dynamics in immunity and autoimmunity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;67:65–74.
Javierre BM, Fernandez AF, Richter J, Al-Shahrour F, Martin-Subero JI, Rodriguez-Ubreva J, Berdasco M, Fraga MF, O’Hanlon TP, Rider LG, et al. Changes in the pattern of DNA methylation associate with twin discordance in systemic lupus erythematosus. Genome Res. 2010;20:170–9.
Canas CA, Canas F, Bonilla-Abadia F, Ospina FE, Tobon GJ. Epigenetics changes associated to environmental triggers in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 2016;49:1–11.
Lister R, Pelizzola M, Dowen RH, Hawkins RD, Hon G, Tonti-Filippini J, Nery JR, Lee L, Ye Z, Ngo QM, et al. Human DNA methylomes at base resolution show widespread epigenomic differences. Nature. 2009;462:315–22.
Johnson AA, Akman K, Calimport SR, Wuttke D, Stolzing A, de Magalhaes JP. The role of DNA methylation in aging, rejuvenation, and age-related disease. Rejuvenation Res. 2012;15:483–94.
Jin B, Robertson KD. DNA methyltransferases, DNA damage repair, and cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;754:3–29.
Ehrlich M, Lacey M. DNA hypomethylation and hemimethylation in cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;754:31–56.
Defossez PA, Stancheva I. Biological functions of methyl-CpG-binding proteins. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2011;101:377–98.
Meda F, Folci M, Baccarelli A, Selmi C. The epigenetics of autoimmunity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011;8:226–36.
Quddus J, Johnson KJ, Gavalchin J, Amento EP, Chrisp CE, Yung RL, Richardson BC. Treating activated CD4+ T cells with either of two distinct DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, 5-azacytidine or procainamide, is sufficient to cause a lupus-like disease in syngeneic mice. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:38–53.
Marzano AV, Tavecchio S, Menicanti C, Crosti C. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2014;149:301–9.
Yung RL, Richardson BC. Drug-induced lupus. Rheum Dis Clin N Am. 1994;20:61–86.
Lu Q, Wu A, Richardson BC. Demethylation of the same promoter sequence increases CD70 expression in lupus T cells and T cells treated with lupus-inducing drugs. J Immunol. 2005;174:6212–9.
Liu CC, Ou TT, Wu CC, Li RN, Lin YC, Lin CH, Tsai WC, Liu HW, Yen JH. Global DNA methylation, DNMT1, and MBD2 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2011;20:131–6.
Balada E, Ordi-Ros J, Serrano-Acedo S, Martinez-Lostao L, Vilardell-Tarres M. Transcript overexpression of the MBD2 and MBD4 genes in CD4+ T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:1609–16.
Richardson B, Scheinbart L, Strahler J, Gross L, Hanash S, Johnson M. Evidence for impaired T cell DNA methylation in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:1665–73.
Renaudineau Y, Youinou P. Epigenetics and autoimmunity, with special emphasis on methylation. Keio J Med. 2011;60:10–6.
Zan H. Epigenetics in lupus. Autoimmunity. 2014;47:213–4.
Chan VS, Tsang HH, Tam RC, Lu L, Lau CS. B-cell-targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Cell Mol Immunol. 2013;10:133–42.
Harvey PR, Gordon C. B-cell targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus: successes and challenges. BioDrugs. 2013;27:85–95.
Thabet Y, Canas F, Ghedira I, Youinou P, Mageed RA, Renaudineau Y. Altered patterns of epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus and auto-antibody production: is there a link? J Autoimmun. 2012;39:154–60.
Garaud S, Youinou P, Renaudineau Y. DNA methylation and B-cell autoreactivity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;711:50–60.
Garaud S, Le Dantec C, Jousse-Joulin S, Hanrotel-Saliou C, Saraux A, Mageed RA, Youinou P, Renaudineau Y. IL-6 modulates CD5 expression in B cells from patients with lupus by regulating DNA methylation. J Immunol. 2009;182:5623–32.
Peng SL. Altered T and B lymphocyte signaling pathways in lupus. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:179–83.
Richardson BC, Strahler JR, Pivirotto TS, Quddus J, Bayliss GE, Gross LA, O’Rourke KS, Powers D, Hanash SM, Johnson MA. Phenotypic and functional similarities between 5-azacytidine-treated T cells and a T cell subset in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:647–62.
Kaplan MJ, Lu Q, Wu A, Attwood J, Richardson B. Demethylation of promoter regulatory elements contributes to perforin overexpression in CD4+ lupus T cells. J Immunol. 2004;172:3652–61.
Oelke K, Lu Q, Richardson D, Wu A, Deng C, Hanash S, Richardson B. Overexpression of CD70 and overstimulation of IgG synthesis by lupus T cells and T cells treated with DNA methylation inhibitors. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1850–60.
Lu Q, Wu A, Tesmer L, Ray D, Yousif N, Richardson B. Demethylation of CD40LG on the inactive X in T cells from women with lupus. J Immunol. 2007;179:6352–8.
Deng C, Yang J, Scott J, Hanash S, Richardson BC. Role of the ras-MAPK signaling pathway in the DNA methyltransferase response to DNA hypomethylation. Biol Chem. 1998;379:1113–20.
Sawalha AH, Jeffries M, Webb R, Lu Q, Gorelik G, Ray D, Osban J, Knowlton N, Johnson K, Richardson B. Defective T-cell ERK signaling induces interferon-regulated gene expression and overexpression of methylation-sensitive genes similar to lupus patients. Genes Immun. 2008;9:368–78.
Jeffries MA, Dozmorov M, Tang Y, Merrill JT, Wren JD, Sawalha AH. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Epigenetics. 2011;6:593–601.
Sunahori K, Nagpal K, Hedrich CM, Mizui M, Fitzgerald LM, Tsokos GC. The catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac) promotes DNA hypomethylation by suppressing the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/phosphorylated ERK/DNMT1 protein pathway in T-cells from controls and systemic lupus erythematosus patients. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21936–44.
Richardson B, Powers D, Hooper F, Yung RL, O’Rourke K. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 overexpression and T cell autoreactivity. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37:1363–72.
Richardson BC. Epigenetics and autoimmunity. Overview. Autoimmunity. 2008;41:243–4.
Richardson B. Primer: epigenetics of autoimmunity. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007;3:521–7.
Yung R, Powers D, Johnson K, Amento E, Carr D, Laing T, Yang J, Chang S, Hemati N, Richardson B. Mechanisms of drug-induced lupus. II. T cells overexpressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 become autoreactive and cause a lupuslike disease in syngeneic mice. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:2866–71.
Takeuchi T, Amano K, Sekine H, Koide J, Abe T. Upregulated expression and function of integrin adhesive receptors in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with vasculitis. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:3008–16.
Lu Q, Kaplan M, Ray D, Ray D, Zacharek S, Gutsch D, Richardson B. Demethylation of ITGAL (CD11a) regulatory sequences in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1282–91.
Lu Q, Wu A, Ray D, Deng C, Attwood J, Hanash S, Pipkin M, Lichtenheld M, Richardson B. DNA methylation and chromatin structure regulate T cell perforin gene expression. J Immunol. 2003;170:5124–32.
Ciferska H, Horak P, Hermanova Z, Ordeltova M, Zadrazil J, Tichy T, Scudla V. The levels of sCD30 and of sCD40L in a group of patients with systemic lupus erythematodes and their diagnostic value. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:723–8.
Goules A, Tzioufas AG, Manousakis MN, Kirou KA, Crow MK, Routsias JG. Elevated levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in serum of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 2006;26:165–71.
Mi XB, Zeng FQ. Hypomethylation of interleukin-4 and -6 promoters in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:105–12.
Li Y, Zhao M, Yin H, Gao F, Wu X, Luo Y, Zhao S, Zhang X, Su Y, Hu N, et al. Overexpression of the growth arrest and DNA damage-induced 45alpha gene contributes to autoimmunity by promoting DNA demethylation in lupus T cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1438–47.
Zhao M, Sun Y, Gao F, Wu X, Tang J, Yin H, Luo Y, Richardson B, Lu Q. Epigenetics and SLE: RFX1 downregulation causes CD11a and CD70 overexpression by altering epigenetic modifications in lupus CD4+ T cells. J Autoimmun. 2010;35:58–69.
Zhao M, Liu Q, Liang G, Wang L, Luo S, Tang Q, Zhao H, Su Y, Yung S, Chan TM, Lu Q. E4BP4 overexpression: a protective mechanism in CD4+ T cells from SLE patients. J Autoimmun. 2013;41:152–60.
Coit P, Jeffries M, Altorok N, Dozmorov MG, Koelsch KA, Wren JD, Merrill JT, McCune WJ, Sawalha AH. Genome-wide DNA methylation study suggests epigenetic accessibility and transcriptional poising of interferon-regulated genes in naive CD4+ T cells from lupus patients. J Autoimmun. 2013;43:78–84.
Absher DM, Li X, Waite LL, Gibson A, Roberts K, Edberg J, Chatham WW, Kimberly RP. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus reveals persistent hypomethylation of interferon genes and compositional changes to CD4+ T-cell populations. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003678.
Dieker J, Muller S. Epigenetic histone code and autoimmunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010;39:78–84.
Hedrich CM, Tsokos GC. Epigenetic mechanisms in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Trends Mol Med. 2011;17:714–24.
Wang Z, Yin H, Lau CS, Lu Q. Histone posttranslational modifications of CD4(+) T cell in autoimmune diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:1547.
Mishra N, Reilly CM, Brown DR, Ruiz P, Gilkeson GS. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate renal disease in the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:539–52.
Nambiar MP, Warke VG, Fisher CU, Tsokos GC. Effect of trichostatin a on human T cells resembles signaling abnormalities in T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a new mechanism for TCR zeta chain deficiency and abnormal signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:459–69.
Yan K, Cao Q, Reilly CM, Young NL, Garcia BA, Mishra N. Histone deacetylase 9 deficiency protects against effector T cell-mediated systemic autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28833–43.
Dai Y, Zhang L, Hu C, Zhang Y. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation by ChIP-Chip in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:158–68.
Zhang Z, Song L, Maurer K, Petri MA, Sullivan KE. Global H4 acetylation analysis by ChIP-Chip in systemic lupus erythematosus monocytes. Genes Immun. 2010;11:124–33.
Hu N, Qiu X, Luo Y, Yuan J, Li Y, Lei W, Zhang G, Zhou Y, Su Y, Lu Q. Abnormal histone modification patterns in lupus CD4+ T cells. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:804–10.
Rauen T, Hedrich CM, Juang YT, Tenbrock K, Tsokos GC. cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) alpha protein induces interleukin 17A expression and mediates epigenetic alterations at the interleukin-17A gene locus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43437–46.
Hedrich CM, Rauen T, Tsokos GC. cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) alpha protein signaling mediates epigenetic remodeling of the human interleukin-2 gene: implications in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43429–36.
Tenbrock K, Juang YT, Leukert N, Roth J, Tsokos GC. The transcriptional repressor cAMP response element modulator alpha interacts with histone deacetylase 1 to repress promoter activity. J Immunol. 2006;177:6159–64.
Kouzarides T. Chromatin modifications and their function. Cell. 2007;128:693–705.
Zhou Y, Qiu X, Luo Y, Yuan J, Li Y, Zhong Q, Zhao M, Lu Q. Histone modifications and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein levels at the TNFSF7 (CD70) promoter in SLE CD4+ T cells. Lupus. 2011;20:1365–71.
Meister G, Tuschl T. Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nature. 2004;431:343–9.
Bartel DP. MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell. 2004;116:281–97.
Amarilyo G, La Cava A. miRNA in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2012;144:26–31.
Dai Y, Sui W, Lan H, Yan Q, Huang H, Huang Y. Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression patterns in renal biopsies of lupus nephritis patients. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:749–54.
Pan W, Zhu S, Yuan M, Cui H, Wang L, Luo X, Li J, Zhou H, Tang Y, Shen N. MicroRNA-21 and microRNA-148a contribute to DNA hypomethylation in lupus CD4+ T cells by directly and indirectly targeting DNA methyltransferase 1. J Immunol. 2010;184:6773–81.
Zhao S, Wang Y, Liang Y, Zhao M, Long H, Ding S, Yin H, Lu Q. MicroRNA-126 regulates DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells and contributes to systemic lupus erythematosus by targeting DNA methyltransferase 1. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1376–86.
Ding S, Liang Y, Zhao M, Liang G, Long H, Zhao S, Wang Y, Yin H, Zhang P, Zhang Q, Lu Q. Decreased microRNA-142-3p/5p expression causes CD4+ T cell activation and B cell hyperstimulation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2953–63.
Tang Y, Luo X, Cui H, Ni X, Yuan M, Guo Y, Huang X, Zhou H, de Vries N, Tak PP, et al. MicroRNA-146A contributes to abnormal activation of the type I interferon pathway in human lupus by targeting the key signaling proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1065–75.
Xu WD, Lu MM, Pan HF, Ye DQ. Association of MicroRNA-146a with autoimmune diseases. Inflammation. 2012;35:1525–9.
Zhao X, Tang Y, Qu B, Cui H, Wang S, Wang L, Luo X, Huang X, Li J, Chen S, Shen N. MicroRNA-125a contributes to elevated inflammatory chemokine RANTES levels via targeting KLF13 in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:3425–35.
Lashine YA, Seoudi AM, Salah S, Abdelaziz AI. Expression signature of microRNA-181-a reveals its crucial role in the pathogenesis of paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29:351–7.
Qin H, Zhu X, Liang J, Wu J, Yang Y, Wang S, Shi W, Xu J. MicroRNA-29b contributes to DNA hypomethylation of CD4+ T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus by indirectly targeting DNA methyltransferase 1. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69:61–7.
Te JL, Dozmorov IM, Guthridge JM, Nguyen KL, Cavett JW, Kelly JA, Bruner GR, Harley JB, Ojwang JO. Identification of unique microRNA signature associated with lupus nephritis. PLoS One. 2010;5:e10344.
Yu D, Tan AH, Hu X, Athanasopoulos V, Simpson N, Silva DG, Hutloff A, Giles KM, Leedman PJ, Lam KP, et al. Roquin represses autoimmunity by limiting inducible T-cell co-stimulator messenger RNA. Nature. 2007;450:299–303.
Xiao C, Srinivasan L, Calado DP, Patterson HC, Zhang B, Wang J, Henderson JM, Kutok JL, Rajewsky K. Lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity in mice with increased miR-17-92 expression in lymphocytes. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:405–14.
Lourenco EV, La Cava A. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Mol Med. 2009;9:242–54.
Capper ER, Maskill JK, Gordon C, Blakemore AI. Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1ra and IL-12 profiles in active and quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus: could longitudinal studies reveal patient subgroups of differing pathology? Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;138:348–56.
Hedrich CM, Rauen T, Apostolidis SA, Grammatikos AP, Rodriguez Rodriguez N, Ioannidis C, Kyttaris VC, Crispin JC, Tsokos GC. Stat3 promotes IL-10 expression in lupus T cells through trans-activation and chromatin remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13457–62.
Lin SY, Hsieh SC, Lin YC, Lee CN, Tsai MH, Lai LC, Chuang EY, Chen PC, Hung CC, Chen LY, et al. A whole genome methylation analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus: hypomethylation of the IL10 and IL1R2 promoters is associated with disease activity. Genes Immun. 2012;13:214–20.
Iwanami K, Matsumoto I, Tanaka-Watanabe Y, Inoue A, Mihara M, Ohsugi Y, Mamura M, Goto D, Ito S, Tsutsumi A, et al. Crucial role of the interleukin-6/interleukin-17 cytokine axis in the induction of arthritis by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:754–63.
Tang C, Li Y, Lin X, Ye J, Li W, He Z, Li F, Cai X. Hypomethylation of interleukin 6 correlates with renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. Cen-Eur J Immunol. 2014;39:203.
Ivashkiv LB, Donlin LT. Regulation of type I interferon responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014;14:36–49.
Niewold TB. Interferon alpha as a primary pathogenic factor in human lupus. J Interf Cytokine Res. 2011;31:887–92.
Zhao M, Zhou Y, Zhu B, Wan M, Jiang T, Tan Q, Liu Y, Jiang J, Luo S, Tan Y, et al. IFI44L promoter methylation as a blood biomarker for systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:1998–2006.
Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Asano M, Itoh M, Toda M. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J Immunol. 1995;155:1151–64.
Vent-Schmidt J, Han JM, MacDonald KG, Levings MK. The role of FOXP3 in regulating immune responses. Int Rev Immunol. 2014;33:110–28.
Horwitz DA. Regulatory T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: past, present and future. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:227.
Okada M, Ogasawara H, Kaneko H, Hishikawa T, Sekigawa I, Hashimoto H, Maruyama N, Kaneko Y, Yamamoto N. Role of DNA methylation in transcription of human endogenous retrovirus in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:1678–82.
Piotrowski PC, Duriagin S, Jagodzinski PP. Expression of human endogenous retrovirus clone 4-1 may correlate with blood plasma concentration of anti-U1 RNP and anti-Sm nuclear antibodies. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:620–4.
Nakkuntod J, Sukkapan P, Avihingsanon Y, Mutirangura A, Hirankarn N. DNA methylation of human endogenous retrovirus in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:241–9.
Yang Y, Tang Q, Zhao M, Liang G, Wu H, Li D, Xie Y, Tan Y, Dai Y, Yung S, et al. The effect of mycophenolic acid on epigenetic modifications in lupus CD4+T cells. Clin Immunol. 2015;158:67–76.
Wang H, Peng W, Ouyang X, Li W, Dai Y. Circulating microRNAs as candidate biomarkers in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Transl Res. 2012;160:198–206.
Garchow BG, Bartulos Encinas O, Leung YT, Tsao PY, Eisenberg RA, Caricchio R, Obad S, Petri A, Kauppinen S, Kiriakidou M. Silencing of microRNA-21 in vivo ameliorates autoimmune splenomegaly in lupus mice. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:605–15.
Stagakis E, Bertsias G, Verginis P, Nakou M, Hatziapostolou M, Kritikos H, Iliopoulos D, Boumpas DT. Identification of novel microRNA signatures linked to human lupus disease activity and pathogenesis: miR-21 regulates aberrant T cell responses through regulation of PDCD4 expression. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1496–506.
Wang W, Mou S, Wang L, Zhang M, Shao X, Fang W, Lu R, Qi C, Fan Z, Cao Q, et al. Up-regulation of serum miR-130b-3p level is associated with renal damage in early lupus nephritis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12644.
Costa-Reis P, Russo PA, Zhang Z, Colonna L, Maurer K, Gallucci S, Schulz SW, Kiani AN, Petri M, Sullivan KE. The role of MicroRNAs and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in proliferative lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:2415–26.
Zhou H, Hasni SA, Perez P, Tandon M, Jang SI, Zheng C, Kopp JB, Austin H 3rd, Balow JE, Alevizos I, Illei GG. miR-150 promotes renal fibrosis in lupus nephritis by downregulating SOCS1. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:1073–87.
Cheng L, Sun X, Scicluna BJ, Coleman BM, Hill AF. Characterization and deep sequencing analysis of exosomal and non-exosomal miRNA in human urine. Kidney Int. 2014;86:433–44.
Ichii O, Otsuka-Kanazawa S, Horino T, Kimura J, Nakamura T, Matsumoto M, Toi M, Kon Y. Decreased miR-26a expression correlates with the progression of podocyte injury in autoimmune glomerulonephritis. PLoS One. 2014;9:e110383.
Solé C, Cortés-Hernández J, Felip ML, Vidal M, Ordi-Ros J. miR-29c in urinary exosomes as predictor of early renal fibrosis in lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015;30(9):1488–96.
Dai R, Ahmed SA. MicroRNA, a new paradigm for understanding immunoregulation, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Transl Res. 2011;157:163–79.
Seddiki N, Brezar V, Ruffin N, Levy Y, Swaminathan S. Role of miR-155 in the regulation of lymphocyte immune function and disease. Immunology. 2014;142:32–8.
Leng RX, Pan HF, Qin WZ, Chen GM, Ye DQ. Role of microRNA-155 in autoimmunity. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2011;22:141–7.
Thai TH, Patterson HC, Pham DH, Kis-Toth K, Kaminski DA, Tsokos GC. Deletion of microRNA-155 reduces autoantibody responses and alleviates lupus-like disease in the Fas(lpr) mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20194–9.
Wang G, Tam LS, Li EK, Kwan BC, Chow KM, Luk CC, Li PK, Szeto CC. Serum and urinary cell-free miR-146a and miR-155 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:2516–22.
Wang G, Tam LS, Kwan BC, Li EK, Chow KM, Luk CC, Li PK, Szeto CC. Expression of miR-146a and miR-155 in the urinary sediment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31:435–40.
Sun W, Shen W, Yang S, Hu F, Li H, Zhu TH. miR-223 and miR-142 attenuate hematopoietic cell proliferation, and miR-223 positively regulates miR-142 through LMO2 isoforms and CEBP-beta. Cell Res. 2010;20:1158–69.
Chen CZ, Li L, Lodish HF, Bartel DP. MicroRNAs modulate hematopoietic lineage differentiation. Science. 2004;303:83–6.
Michael MZ, OC SM, van Holst Pellekaan NG, Young GP, James RJ. Reduced accumulation of specific microRNAs in colorectal neoplasia. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:882–91.
Wang Y, Liang J, Qin H, Ge Y, Du J, Lin J, Zhu X, Wang J, Xu J. Elevated expression of miR-142-3p is related to the pro-inflammatory function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in SLE. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:263.
Li H, Ding G. Elevated serum inflammatory cytokines in lupus nephritis patients, in association with promoted hsa-miR-125a. Clin Lab. 2016;62:631–8.
Abulaban K, Fall N, Nelson S, Witte D, Devarajan P, Bennett M, Brunner HI. MicroRNA’s role as biomarkers of lupus nephritis in children. Pediatr Rheumatol. 2014;12:P107.
Amr KS, Bayoumi FS, Elgengehy FT, Abdallah SO, Ahmed HH, Eissa E. The role of microRNA-31 and microRNA-21 as regulatory biomarkers in the activation of T lymphocytes of Egyptian lupus patients. Rheumatol Int. 2016;36:1617–25.
Mizui M, Koga T, Lieberman LA, Beltran J, Yoshida N, Johnson MC, Tisch R, Tsokos GC. IL-2 protects lupus-prone mice from multiple end-organ damage by limiting CD4-CD8- IL-17-producing T cells. J Immunol. 2014;193:2168–77.
Kim BS, Jung JY, Jeon JY, Kim HA, Suh CH. Circulating hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-92a-3p, and hsa-miR-223-3p may be novel biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus. HLA. 2016;88:187–93.
Sun XG, Tao JH, Xiang N, Li XM, Wang GS, Fang X, Dai C, Zhang M, Chen Z, Li XP. Negative correlation between miR-326 and Ets-1 in regulatory T cells from new-onset SLE patients. Inflammation. 2016;39:822–9.