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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of children with available cord blood samples from the PROOM-3 study

From: Combined prenatal Lactobacillus reuteri and ω-3 supplementation synergistically modulates DNA methylation in neonatal T helper cells

Intervention group LP PP
Group description and size L. reuteri + 
ω-3 PUFA
n = 18
L. reuteri + 
Placebo
n = 16
Placebo + 
ω-3 PUFA
n = 15
Placebo + Placebo
n = 14
Female 6/18 (33%) 7/16 (44%) 12/15 (80%)* 3/14 (21%)
Birth week 39.5 (39.0–41.0) 40.0 (38.8–40.2) 40.0 (40.0–41.0) 40.0 (39.0–41.0)
Treatment duration 19.0 (19.0–21.2) 19.5 (19.0–20.0) 20.0 (19.5–21.0) 20.0 (19.0–20.8)
Maternal age (birth) 31.0 (29.0–32.8) 32.0 (30.0–33.2) 32.0 (29.0–33.0) 30.0 (28.2–32.5)
Caesarean delivery 3/17 (18%) 0/16 (0%) 1/15 (7%) 1/14 (7%)
Birth weight (kg) 3.8 (3.6–3.9) 3.5 (3.3–3.9) 3.9 (3.7–4.1) 3.8 (3.6–4.1)
Birth height (cm) 51.0 (50.0–52.0) 51.5 (49.8–52.2) 51.0 (50.5–52.5) 51.0 (50.0–52.0)
Maternal atopy 14/18 (78%) 11/16 (69%) 7/15 (47%) 8/14 (57%)
Paternal atopy 9/18 (50%) 9/16 (56%) 9/15 (60%) 11/14 (79%)
Siblings 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.2) 1.0 (0.0–1.5) 0.0 (0.0–1.0)
People in home 4.0 (3.0–4.0) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 3.0 (3.0–4.0) 3.5 (3.0–4.0)
Smoking in home 0/18 (0%) 0/16 (0%) 0/12 (0%) 1/14 (7%)
Breastfeeding (at 3 months) 15/18 (83%) 12/16 (75%) 9/12 (75%) 12/14 (86%)
Antibiotics (during first 3 months) 1/15 (7%) 1/14 (7%) 0/10 (0%) 0/11 (0%)
Pets in home (at 3 months) 4/18 (22%) 5/16 (31%) 3/11 (27%) 1/13 (8%)
Naïve
CD4+ CD45RA + 
cells (%)
95.6 (94.6–97.4) 96.6 (95.7–97.1) 95.7 (95.3–97.3) 95.9 (94.5–96.9)
Memory CD4+ CD45RA-
cells (%)
4.4 (2.6–5.4) 3.4 (2.9–4.3) 4.3 (2.7–4.7) 4.1 (3.1–5.5)
  1. Demographic variable information was retrieved from parentally reported questionnaire data at the three month follow-up. Continuous variables are expressed as medians with interquartile ranges and were analysed using the Shapiro–Wilk’s test of normality followed by Levene’s test of equal variances and the Kruskal–Wallis H test. For the categorical variables, the Pearson χ2 test was performed and the data is presented as n/N (%). *denotes significantly more females than males in the Pω group, p = 0.01. L—Lactobacillus reuteri, ω—ω-3 fatty acids, P—placebo