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Table 1 Relevant epigenetic implication in viral infection

From: The epigenetic implication in coronavirus infection and therapy

Epigenetic modification Virus infection Target Functional outcome
Histone methylation H3N2 influenza A H3K4 Inhibition of the initiation of the host innate immune response [55]
  SARS-CoV H3K4me Promotion of active transcription and ISG expression [16]
   H3K4me3  
  H1N1 H3K4me Block of antiviral gene function [16, 54]
  MERS-CoV H3K27me3 Down-regulation/inactivation of ISGs [16, 57, 63] and development of antagonistic mechanism to target the IFN innate immune response [59]
   H3K4me3  
  HSV Down-regulation/inactivation of ISGs [59, 60]
  H5N1-Vn1203 H3K27me3 Down-regulation of ISGs [16, 57]
  HIV-1 Down-regulation/inactivation of ISGs [59, 60]
Histone acetylation Adenovirus (Ad) E1A H3K9ac Interference with epigenetic functions and global immune function [55]
   H3K27ac  
DNA methylation SARS-CoV Delay/offset of pathogen recognition and modulation of ISG expression levels [16]
  MERS-CoV Loss of antigen-presentation molecules [58]
  HSV Delay/offset of pathogen recognition and modulation of ISG expression levels [16]
  H5N1-Vn1203 Loss of antigen-presentation molecules [58]
  HIV-1 Delay/offset of pathogen recognition and modulation of ISG expression levels [16]
  HCV Interference with global immune function [56]
RNA methylation KSHV m6A/m6Am Mediation of the stability of the viral transcripts [70]
  SARS-CoV 5mC Modulation of the structure and the viral replication [67, 68]
  HBV m6A Regulation of gene expression and reverse transcription; transcript destabilization [69]