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Table 4 Epigenetic diets and their properties in epigenetic regulation

From: Prenatal epigenetics diets play protective roles against environmental pollution

Classification Food example Component Epigenetic effect Ref.
Polyphenol Kaempferol HDAC inhibition [323, 324]
SIRT3 activation [322]
Phloretin DNMT inhibition [325]
Apigenin DNMT inhibition [326, 327]
HDAC inhibition [326]
HMT inhibition [327]
Luteolin DNMT inhibition [327, 328, 330]
HDAC inhibition [329, 330]
HMT inhibition [327]
SIRT activation [329]
Hesperidin DNMT inhibition [331]
Quercetin DNMT inhibition [275, 326, 332]
HAT inhibition [334]
SITR1 activation [333, 344]
Caffeic acid HDAC inhibition [335, 336]
Chlorogenic acid HDAC inhibition [335]
Allyl mercaptan HDAC inhibition [337]
Diallyl disulfide HDAC inhibition [338,339,340]
Anthocyanin DNMT inhibition [325, 341]
miRNAs modulation [342]
Piceatannol SIRT1 activation [333, 343, 344]
Procyanidin DNMT inhibition [283, 479]
HDAC inhibition [283, 480]
SIRT1 modulation [346, 347]
miRNA modulation [342, 345, 348]
Resveratrol DNMT inhibition [268, 283,284,285,286]
HDAC inhibition [283, 285, 287,288,289]
miRNAs modulation [284, 299,300,301,302,303]
SIRT1 activation [292,293,294,295,296]
Decreased MeCP2 [285]
Catechin (EGCG) DNMT inhibition [274, 275, 285, 481]
HAT inhibition [270, 482]
HDAC inhibition [276, 285, 481, 483]
Decreased MeCP2 [285]
miRNAs modulation [278, 279, 281]
Theophylline HDAC activation [349, 350]
Biochanin A DNMT inhibition [350]
Daidzein DNMT inhibition [351]
Equol Demethylation of BRCAs [352]
Genistein DNMT inhibition [285, 306,307,308,309]
Decreased MeCP2 [285]
HDAC inhibition [285, 306, 309]
HAT activation [311, 313]
miRNAs modulation [271, 318,319,320,321]
Curcumin DNMT inhibition [285, 353, 484, 485]
Decreased MeCP2 [285]
HAT inhibition [354]
HDAC inhibition [285, 355, 356]
miRNAs modulation [357, 486,487,488,489]
Vitamin Folate One-carbon metabolism [386, 490, 491]
HMT regulation [491]
Epigenome regulation [492]
miRNAs modulation [405, 493,494,495]
Vitamin C DNA demethylation [360,361,362,363,364,365,366]
Histone demethylation [367,368,369,370]
Epigenome regulation [358]
Vitamin D DNA methylation [375,376,377,378,379, 468, 469, 496]
Histone modification [372, 374, 380, 381]
Epigenome regulation [372, 470]
miRNAs modulation [497,498,499]
Choline DNA methylation [393,394,395,396,397,398, 401,402,403,404]
Histone methylation [405]
miRNAs modulation [405,406,407]
Other Isothiocyanate HDAC inhibition [419,420,421,422]
Sulforaphane HDAC inhibition [269, 276, 409,410,411,412]
DNMT inhibition [276, 414, 415]
miRNAs modulation [414, 416,417,418]
Withaferin A DNMT inhibition [285, 411]
HDAC inhibition [269, 285, 411]
HMT inhibition [269]
HAT activation [269]
miRNAs modulation [500]
Se DNA methylation [436, 437, 439,440,441,442,443,444]
Histone modification [436, 438]
DNMT inhibition [436]
HDAC inhibition [438]