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Table 1 Summary of human studies reporting associations between prenatal exposure to air pollution and epigenetic alterations

From: Prenatal epigenetics diets play protective roles against environmental pollution

Pollution Exposure stage Epigenetic change Ref.
Particulate matter Prenatal Altered DNA methylation at CpG sites [65]
First trimester Positive correlation with placental global DNA methylation [74]
Second trimester Lower placental leptin promoter methylation [78]
Early pregnancy Associated with placental DNA methylation of LINE1 and HSD11B2 [75]
Prenatal Decreased expression of miR-21, miR-146a and miR-222; increased expression of miR-20a and miR-21 [80]
Gestation Increased mtDNA methylation levels and decreased LINE-1 methylation levels [77]
Prenatal Decrease in global DNA methylation for whole pregnancy [73]
Prenatal Increased DNA methylation in LINE1, OGG1, APEX and PARP1 [79]
Smoking Prenatal Nearly 3000 CpGs corresponding to genes differentially methylated in offspring [85]
Maternal Altered DNA methylation levels at CpG sites of GFI1, AHRR and PRNP gene in male and female, differentially [110]
In utero Impact key biological pathways through epigenetic modification [84]
Maternal Differential methylation of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A genes in children blood [107]
In utero Global DNA hypomethylation; 31 CpG sites associated to 25 genes [99]
Prenatal Altered methylation at 15 CpG sites [100]
Prenatal Differential methylation at five CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2; persist in exposed offspring for many years [88]
In utero Increased CpG methylation in FRMD4A and Cllorf52; reproducible epigenetic changes persist into childhood [87]
In utero Altered methylation at 185 CpGs of 110 gene regions in infants [101]
In utero Hypomethylation of AHRR in the cord blood mononuclear cells, buccal epithelium and placenta tissue [44]
In utero Altered methylation at TSLP promoter [106]
Maternal Altered methylation patterns of a few loci within the RUNX3 gene [102]
In utero Increased IGF2 DMR [105]
In utero Altered LINE-1 and AluYb8 methylation levels [83]
Maternal Differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide for 26 CpGs mapped to 10 genes [104]
Maternal Differential epigenome-wide placental DNA methylation [82]
Gestation Decreased methylation of Sat2 [96]
Maternal Increased DNA methylation in the BNDF-6 exon [108]
Gestation Downregulation of miR-16, miR-21 and miR-146a in placenta [109]
In utero Global DNA methylation inversely correlates with cotinine levels in cord blood [95]
In utero Decreased methylation at CYPIAI promoter in the placenta [103]
Prenatal Lower methylation of AluYb8; differential methylation of LINE1; increased methylation of AXL and PTPRO [98]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Prenatal Inverse relationship with LINE1 DNA methylation in cord blood [119]
Prenatal Decreased global methylation in umbilical cord white blood cells [118]
Prenatal Altered methylation in 5′-CpG islands of ACSL3 [120]
NO2 Prenatal Related alteration of ADORA2B methylation [65]
Prenatal Differential offspring DNA methylation in antioxidant and mitochondria-related genes [122]