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Table 1 Summary of some studies that have investigated the impact of physical inactivity and/or activity on DNA methylation in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

From: DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes

Intervention Tissue Key findings Reference
9 days of bed rest Muscle Increased methylation of PGC1α [62]. AC Alibegovic et al., American journal of physiology Endocrinology and metabolism 2010;299:E752-763
Acute exercise Muscle Response to exercise based on changed methylation of PGC1α [64]. S Bajpeyi et al., Endocrinology 2017;158:2190-2199
6 months exercise intervention Muscle 2051 genes (i.e. MEF2A, RUNX1, NDUFC2, and THADA) with decreased and 766 genes with increased methylation [11]. MD Nitert et al., Diabetes 2012;61:3322-3332
Acute exercise Muscle Decreased methylation of PGC1α, PDK4, and PPARδ [65]. R Barres et al., Cell metabolism 2012;15:405-411
3 months supervised exercise Muscle Methylation changes at 4919 sites across the genome in trained leg [67]. ME Lindholm et al., Epigenetics 2014;9:1557-1569
6 months exercise intervention Adipose tissue 17,975 individual CpG sites in 7663 unique genes (i.e. HDAC4 and NCOR2) showed altered methylation [66]. T Ronn et al., PLoS genetics 2013;9:e1003572
16 weeks of either endurance or resistance training Muscle Endurance and resistant training induced different epigenetic changes [68]. DS Rowlands et al., Physiol Genomics 2014;46:747-765