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Table 1 List of TECs-associated miRNAs

From: Epigenetic modifications in thymic epithelial cells: an evolutionary perspective for thymus atrophy

miRNA Expression Target and/or regulators Signaling pathways Functions References
miR-205-5p Up Fa2h/AP-2α, Foxn1 Wnt miR-205-5p could block cell cycle and interrupt the proliferation of TECs [70]
miR-199b-5p Up Fzd6/c-myc Wnt miR-199b-5p could enhance the proliferation of the mTECs through directly targeting the frizzled receptor 6 (Fzd6) [71]
Up Meis1 miR-183 and miR-200b could regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of postnatal TECs [72]
miR-155 Down TGF-β miR-155 could facilitate the maturation of mTECs via modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway [75]
miR-146a-5p Down TRAF6 NF-κB Overexpression of miR-146a-5p could alleviate the cell cycle arrest and suppress the senescence process via downregulated the TRAF6 protein levels [77]
miR-195a-5p Up Smad7 TGF-β miR-195a-5p could hamper the proliferation of mTECs by directly targeting Smad7 that negatively regulating the TGF-β signaling pathway [78]
miR-181a-5p Down YY1, Smad3, c-myc TGF-β/NF-κB miR-181a-5p could regulate the proliferation of mTECs in vitro possibly by the phosphorylation of Smad3 which plays a key role in the TGF-β signaling [80]
miR-181b-5p Down Tnc, Lgals3bp, Lgals9, Cd47 miR-181b-5p could impact the adhesion process between mTECs and single-positive CD4 and CD8 thymocytes and repress the surface marker expression of CD80 in mTECs [38]
miR-449a SATB2 miR-449a can prompt TEPC differentiation and mature into mTECs in vitro by targeting the epigenetic regulator Satb2 [39]
miR-125a-5p Up Foxn1 miR-125a-5p mimics have a fine-tuning role for suppression expression of Foxn1 in murine TECs Z210 cells via directly target 3’UTR of Foxn1 [89]