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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Increased PARylation impacts the DNA methylation process in type 2 diabetes mellitus

  CT T2DM P
N 48 61  
Age (years) 60 ± 8 63 ± 9 0.065
Male % (n) 48 (23) 62 (38) 0.1741
Disease duration (years) 8.51 ± 7.47  
BMI (kg/m2) 26.12 ± 3.77 29.85 ± 5.14  < 0.001
Waist circ. (cm) 84 ± 8.1 106.8 ± 11.69  < 0.001
DBP (mm Hg) 79.09 ± 7.70 81.33 ± 11.08 0.311
SBP (mm Hg) 124.76 ± 10.39 139.35 ± 18.65  < 0.001
FBG (mg/dl) 88.69 ± 10.98 143.13 ± 41.04  < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.25 ± 0.35 7.58 ± 1.39  < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 213.18 ± 35.27 181.86 ± 39.56  < 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 124.65 ± 30.82 91.29 ± 45.61  < 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 64.41 ± 14.78 46.41 ± 11.41  < 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 100.11 ± 33.53 177.56 ± 83.39  < 0.001
ALT (U/l) 19.93 ± 6.4 22.67 ± 13.51 0.184
AST (U/l) 21.37 ± 5.0 19.42 ± 8.49 0.154
GGT (U/l) 16.94 ± 5.79 28.51 ± 21.4 0.004
Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.57 ± 0.06 0.58 ± 0.27 0.929
Direct bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.19 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.008 0.624
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.89 ± 0.17 0.9 ± 0.32 0.744
MALB (mg/l) 24.95 ± 29.61  
PAR (pg/ml) 63.96 ± 38.04 108.38 ± 70.57 0.001
5mC (%) 0.566 ± 0.185 0.679 ± 0.246 0.144
5hmC (%) 0.037 ± 0.009 0.070 ± 0.037  < 0.001
5fC (%) 0.002 ± 0.002 0.006 ± 0.006 0.001
Insulin treated % (n) 28 (17)  
Metformin treated % (n) 54 (33)  
Incretins treated % (n) 28 (17)  
  1. BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; ALT, Alanine Transaminase; AST, Aspartate Transaminase; GGT, Gamma-glutamyl Transpeptidase; MALB, microalbuminuria; PAR, poly ADP-ribose; 5mC, 5-methylcytosine; 5hmC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine; 5fC, 5-formylcytosine
  2. P value: Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test (continuous variables) and chi-square test1 (prevalence, for categorical variables). Bold text indicates significant P values (≤ 0.05)
  3. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables; percentage (number) for categorical variables