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Table 4 Associations between DNAmAge age acceleration estimates and physical activity in muscle

From: Blood and skeletal muscle ageing determined by epigenetic clocks and their associations with physical activity and functioning

   Muscle DNAmAge acceleration
Horvath GrimAge MEAT
β (SE) p-value R2 β (SE) p-value R2 β (SE) p-value R2
FTC& ERMA (N = 183)
MVPA
Low (ref) Model 1    0.045    0.022    0.002
Medium   0.456 (0.661) 0.492   0.152 (0.273) 0.578   0.120 (0.631) 0.849  
High   1.842 (0.660) 0.006   0.531 (0.272) 0.053   0.338 (0.630) 0.592  
Low (ref) Model 2    0.111    0.038    0.005
Medium   − 0.040 (0.667) 0.951   0.059 (0.299) 0.843   0.156 (0.683) 0.820  
High   1.573 (0.786) 0.048   0.493 (0.268) 0.068   0.336 (0.682) 0.637  
FTC (N = 136)
Leisure index Model 1 0.584 (0.516) 0.259 0.010 0.008 (0.189) 0.967 0.000 − 0.763 (0.472) 0.109 0.018
  Model 2 0.483 (0.538) 0.372 0.109 − 0.019 (0.190) 0.922 0.025 − 0.740 (0.523) 0.161 0.020
Sport index Model 1 0.899 (0.338) 0.009 0.050 0.068 (0.123) 0.592 0.002 − 0.221 (0.319) 0.491 0.004
  Model 2 0.756 (0.440) 0.091 0.136 0.042 (0.127) 0.740 0.026 − 0.216 (0.377) 0.569 0.006
ERMA (N = 47)           
Monitored PA           
MVPA, min Model 1 0.030 (0.017) 0.079 0.067 0.021 (0.008) 0.013 0.129 0.023 (0.016) 0.163 0.043
  Model 3 0.032 (0.018) 0.075 0.080 0.022 (0.009) 0.014 0.161 0.021 (0.017) 0.226 0.049
Step counts per day Model 1 0.003 (0.002) 0.114 0.055 0.002 (0.001) 0.007 0.153 0.001 (0.002) 0.548 0.008
  Model 3 0.003 (0.002) 0.105 0.068 0.002 (0.001) 0.006 0.189 0.001 (0.002) 0.758 0.028
Self-reported PA           
Low (ref) Model 1    0.075    0.002    0.056
Medium   3.22 (1.82) 0.084   0.296 (0.965) 0.761   2.82 (1.79) 0.122  
High   2.92 (1.66) 0.085   0.200 (0.880) 0.821   1.58 (1.63) 0.338  
Low (ref) Model 2    0.082    0.035    0.079
Medium   3.21 (1.87) 0.093   0.209 (0.978) 0.832   2.70 (1.82) 0.144  
High   2.96 (1.72) 0.094   0.101 (0.903) 0.912   1.34 (1.68) 0.428  
  1. Model 1. Linear regression analysis with one predictor. Model 2. As Model one, but adjusted for family relatedness, sex and smoking. Model 3. As model one, but adjusted for smoking. Step counts per day calculated per 100 counts. MEAT, muscle epigenetic age test. FTC, Finnish twin cohort; ERMA, Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis study. In first analysis, we formed tertiles based on the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ERMA cohort) and sport indexes (FTC cohort) and pooled the data from these two cohorts