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Table 3 Associations of circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentrations with gestational age acceleration (full population)

From: Associations of circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentrations in early pregnancy and cord blood with epigenetic gestational age: the Generation R Study

  Bohlin Knight
Raw accelerationa Residual accelerationb Raw accelerationa Residual accelerationb
Difference (95% CI) in weeks P value Difference (95% CI) P value Difference (95% CI) in weeks P value Difference (95% CI) P value
Early pregnancy         
 Folate, SDS 0.02 (− 0.03, 0.08) 0.44 0.00 (− 0.03, 0.04) 0.80 − 0.01 (− 0.10, 0.08) 0.87 − 0.02 (− 0.10, 0.06) 0.62
 Total B12, SDS − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05) 0.72 0.00 (− 0.03, 0.04) 0.80 − 0.04 (− 0.13, 0.05) 0.38 − 0.03 (− 0.10, 0.05) 0.50
 Active B12, SDS − 0.03 (− 0.10. 0.03) 0.31 0.00 (− 0.04. 0.04) 0.98 − 0.05 (− 0.15, 0.05) 0.33 − 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.06) 0.59
 Homocysteine, SDS 0.07 (0.02, 0.13) 0.01* 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04) 0.45 0.07 (− 0.01, 0.16) 0.09 0.03 (− 0.05, 0.10) 0.54
Cord blood         
 Folate, SDS 0.02 (− 0.03, 0.08) 0.41 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04) 0.56 0.04 (− 0.04, 0.13) 0.32 0.03 (− 0.04, 0.11) 0.41
 Total B12, SDS − 0.03 (− 0.09, 0.02) 0.25 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.05) 0.18 − 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.05) 0.42 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.08) 0.73
 Active B12, SDS 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.08) 0.34 0.02 (− 0.01. 0.05) 0.24 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.10) 0.76 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.08) 0.86
 Homocysteine, SDS − 0.00 (− 0.06, 0.05) 0.93 − 0.01 (− 0.05. 0.02) 0.40 0.03 (− 0.05, 0.22) 0.49 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.09) 0.62
  1. *This association at nominal significance did remain if we applied a Bonferroni correction, adjusting for four exposures (0.05/4)
  2. The full study population included n = 1346 mother–newborn pairs for the analysis using Knight’s epigenetic clock and n = 1335 mother–newborn pairs for the analysis using Bohlin’s epigenetic clock. Values represent regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) and reflect the difference in raw and residual gestational age acceleration at birth per increase of 1 standard deviation score in exposure variable. Results are based on the main models, which were adjusted for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and smoking, child sex, batch effects (by including plate number), cell types, and additionally for gestational age at blood sampling in early pregnancy models. Folate and homocysteine concentrations were measured in plasma and total and active B12 concentrations were measured in serum
  3. CI confidence interval, SDS standard deviation score
  4. aRaw gestational age acceleration (in weeks) was obtained by subtracting the clinical estimate of gestational age from DNA methylation gestational age
  5. bResidual gestational age acceleration (no unit) was calculated from the residuals from a regression model of DNA methylation gestational age on clinical gestational age