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Table 1 Extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration cohort characteristics

From: Association of cardiovascular health and epigenetic age acceleration

  Overall EEAA T1 (< − 2.24 years.)Ref EEAA T2 (− 2.24–2.33 years.) EEAA T3 (> 2.33 years.)
N 2170 724 727 719
Race/ethnicity (%)     
Non-Hispanic Black or African-American 554 (25.53) 252 (34.81) 178 (24.48)*** 124 (17.25)***
Hispanic/Latino 315 (14.52) 62 (8.56) 117 (16.09)*** 136 (18.92)***
Non-hispanic white 1083 (49.91) 356 (49.17) 352 (48.42) 375 (52.16)
Other 218 (10.05) 54 (7.46) 80 (11)* 84 (11.68)**
Chronological age years (sd.) 64.19 (7.06) 64.35 (7.11) 64.05 (7.09) 64.19 (7)
Education (%)     
Less than high school 198 (9.2) 55 (7.66) 61 (8.46) 82 (11.5)
High school diploma or GED 395 (18.36) 108 (15.04) 141 (19.56)* 146 (20.48)**
Vocational, some college, associates 848 (39.41) 283 (39.42) 295 (40.92) 270 (37.87)
College degree or greater 711 (33.04) 272 (37.88) 224 (31.07)** 215 (30.15)**
Components of CVH score (%)     
Non-smoking 1,880 (87.81) 634 (88.55) 626 (87.31) 620 (87.57)
Ideal BMI 521 (24.13) 180 (25.07) 188 (25.9) 153 (21.4)
Ideal physical activity 428 (21.59) 150 (22.9) 153 (22.9) 125 (18.97)
Ideal cholesterol levels 1,536 (79.22) 505 (79.03) 514 (78.47) 517 (80.16)
Ideal glucose levels 1,928 (88.85) 657 (90.75) 640 (88.03) 631 (87.76)
Ideal blood pressure 414 (19.08) 147 (20.3) 133 (18.29) 134 (18.64)
Ideal diet 606 (27.93) 205 (28.31) 201 (27.65) 200 (27.82)
CVH score (%)     
0–1 41 (2.16) 13 (2.07) 16 (2.48) 12 (1.91)
2 213 (11.2) 59 (9.39) 89 (13.82)** 65 (10.33)
3 636 (33.46) 213 (33.92) 188 (29.19) 235 (37.36)
4 574 (30.19) 186 (29.62) 207 (32.14) 181 (28.78)
5 294 (15.47) 104 (16.56) 94 (14.6) 96 (15.26)
6–7 143 (7.52) 53 (8.44) 50 (7.76) 40 (6.26)
  1. Ref: reference group (T2/3 compared to T1); *p value < 0.05; ** p value < 0.01; *** p value < 0.001
  2. BMI: body mass index; GED: general education diploma; CVH: cardiovascular health
  3. Non-smoking: non-smokers or individuals who quit smoking three year prior to blood draw
  4. Ideal cholesterol levels: cholesterol below 200 without medication
  5. Ideal glucose levels: glucose below 100 without medication
  6. Ideal BMI: BMI below 25
  7. Ideal physical activity: greater than 150 min of moderate to strenuous activity or 75 min of strenuous activity
  8. Ideal blood pressure: systolic blood pressure equal to or below 120, diastolic blood pressure below 80 without hypertension medication
  9. Ideal diet: assessed based on calcium, potassium, fiber, and saturated fat intake