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Table 2 Alterations in promoter methylation of selected genes in the gingival tissue from patients with periodontitis

From: Epigenetic regulation of inflammation in periodontitis: cellular mechanisms and therapeutic potential

Gene promoter Study authors Number of participants (healthy individuals: patients with periodontitis) Outcome
Genes associated with tissue responses
 IFNG Zhang et al. [75] 23:12 (+ 12 participants with experimentally induced gingivitis) ↓ (no difference between experimentally induced gingivitis and healthy subjects)
Viana et al. [76] 16:18
Asa’ad et al. [77] 10:10 (methylation was also assessed 2 and 8 weeks post-therapy) ─ (no change in the course of periodontal therapy)
 IL6 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Kobayashi et al. [79] 30:30
Stefani et al. [80] 21:21
 IL10 Viana et al. [76] 16:18
 IL17 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
 IL17C Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 CXCL3 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 CXCL5 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 IL8 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Oliveira et al. [81] 41:70 (periodontitis group divided into 30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) ─ (no difference between smokers and non-smokers)
 CXCL10 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
 CCL25 Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 TNF Zhang et al. [82] 17:18 (+ 11 participants with experimentally induced gingivitis) ↑ (no difference between experimentally induced gingivitis and healthy subjects)
Asa’ad et al. [77] 10:10 (methylation was also assessed 2- and 8-weeks after therapy) ─ (no change in the course of periodontal therapy)
 PTGS2 (COX2) Zhang et al. [84] 6:10
Loo et al. [85] 108:110 (comparison between blood samples from healthy donors and gingival tissue biopsies from patients with periodontitis)
Asa’ad et al. [77]; 10:10 (methylation was also assessed 2- and 8-weeks after therapy) ↑ (periodontal treatment reduced the methylation status to the levels observed in healthy subjects)
Genes coding for receptors, signaling molecules and transcription factors of inflammation-related pathways
 TLR2 de Faria Amormino et al. [86] 20:20
De Oliveira et al. [83]; 11:23 (periodontitis group was divided into 11 smokers and 12 non-smokers) ─ (inconclusive results: mosaic of methylated and unmethylated DNA. Site-specific (restriction enzyme-specific) trend toward increased methylation in periodontitis non-smokers)
Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10 ─ (strong trend toward decreased methylation in patients with periodontitis, which did not reach statistical significance)
 TLR4 De Oliveira et al. [83]; 11:23 (periodontitis group was divided into 11 smokers and 12 non-smokers) ─ (no difference between smokers and non-smokers)
 IL4R Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 IL6ST Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 TNFRSF18 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
 STAT5A Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Azevedo et al. [87] 20:20
 TYK2 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 SOCS1 Planello et al. [146] 44:46
 SOCS3 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
 RUNX Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
 GATA3 Barros and Offenbacher [78] 10:10
Schulz et al. [89] 10:15 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
  1. The presented panel includes genes that are known to be involved in inflammatory events related to periodontitis that are divided into two groups: genes associated with tissue responses and genes coding for receptors, signaling molecules and transcription factors. The analyses have been conducted on genetic material isolated from homogenized human gingival biopsies unless otherwise indicated. The numbers of participants in both groups (healthy individuals: patients with periodontitis) are shown in parentheses for each study. ↓—decreased methylation in patients with periodontitis compared to healthy controls; ↑—increased methylation in patients with periodontitis compared to healthy controls; ─—no difference between groups