a The volcano plot for differential DNA methylation CpG sites between LC and CHB. The x-axis showed the mean DNA-methylation difference (delta Beta), whereas the y-axis showed the –log10 of the adjusted P value, hypermethylated CGs were shown in red, hypomethylated CGs were shown in red blue, non-significant methylated change CGs were shown in green (Bonferroni correction P value < 0.05). b Immune functional and canonical pathway changes between LC and CHB. Ten most significant pathways identified by the IPA canonical pathways analysis (“Cellular Immune Response,” “Cytokine Signaling,” and “Humoral Immune Response”) of genes, whose “promoter” regions containing differentially methylated CpG probes. Upper x-axis represented negative –log (P value) of the enrichment score, which calculated by IPA using Fisher’s exact test, right-tailed. Lower x-axis represented the ratio values between selected genes and the total number of genes in each of these curated pathways, and the orange curve pointed out the ratio, orange vertical line represented threshold value was 1.3.