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Table 4 Multivariable association of different factors with DNAm ages in the EPIC dataset

From: DNA methylation age calculators reveal association with diabetic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes

 Pan-tissueSkin & BloodPhenoAgeGrimAge
FactorBeta (SE)pBeta (SE)pBeta (SE)pBeta (SE)p
Sex (male)1.47 (0.44)8.00E−4− 0.42 (0.32)0.18− 1.50 (0.53)4.57E−31.45 (0.37)9.99E−5
Cohort (primary)− 0.27 (0.58)0.64− 0.14 (0.42)0.740.82 (0.69)0.24− 0.71 (0.49)0.15
Age (years)0.85 (0.03)1.16E−861.06 (0.02)3.48E−1600.94 (0.04)2.39E−770.80 (0.03)2.21E−99
T1D Duration (months)0.009 (0.005)0.060.003 (0.004)0.430.01 (0.01)4.29E−2− 0.005 (0.004)0.24
Stimulated C-peptide (pmol/ml)− 0.15 (1.79)0.93− 0.72 (1.30)0.58− 1.74 (2.15)0.42− 2.05 (1.51)0.18
Time-weighted HbA1c (%)*0.05 (0.14)0.71− 0.01 (0.10)0.890.38 (0.17)2.57E−20.02 (0.12)0.86
BMI (kg/m2)0.02 (0.06)0.760.09 (0.04)4.84E−20.09 (0.07)0.20− 0.02 (0.05)0.72
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)− 0.01 (0.02)0.660.004 (0.017)0.79− 0.03 (0.03)0.33− 0.01 (0.02)0.48
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.01 (0.03)0.75− 0.01 (0.02)0.530.005 (0.038)0.900.01 (0.03)0.83
HDL (mg/dl)0.93 (0.65)0.150.01 (0.47)0.980.59 (0.78)0.45− 0.11 (0.55)0.85
LDL (mg/dl)0.91 (0.65)0.160.02 (0.47)0.960.60 (0.78)0.45− 0.09 (0.55)0.87
Triglyceride (mg/dl)0.18 (0.13)0.160.001 (0.094)0.990.11 (0.16)0.48− 0.02 (0.11)0.85
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)− 0.91 (0.65)0.16− 0.02 (0.47)0.97− 0.58 (0.78)0.460.10 (0.55)0.85
Pulse rate (beat/min)− 0.01 (0.02)0.650.01 (0.02)0.380.01 (0.03)0.750.01 (0.02)0.67
Current smoker vs. non-smoker− 0.16 (0.50)0.76− 0.51 (0.36)0.160.99 (0.60)0.107.13 (0.42)9.03E−50
Regular drinker vs. non-drinker− 0.37 (0.46)0.420.26 (0.33)0.430.38 (0.55)0.490.69 (0.38)0.07
Occasional drinker vs. non-drinker− 0.66 (0.67)0.32− 0.50 (0.49)0.300.41 (0.81)0.610.71 (0.57)0.21
Strenuous activity vs. sedentary− 1.99 (0.99)4.53E−2− 0.85 (0.72)0.24− 0.94 (1.20)0.430.54 (0.84)0.52
Moderate activity vs. sedentary− 0.11 (0.39)0.780.23 (0.28)0.410.05 (0.47)0.910.25 (0.33)0.44
METS > 1500 vs. METs < 450− 0.18 (0.47)0.71− 0.27 (0.34)0.420.60 (0.57)0.29− 0.33 (0.40)0.41
METs 450–1500 vs. METs < 450− 0.56 (0.48)0.25− 0.81 (0.35)2.15E−2− 0.56 (0.58)0.34− 0.76 (0.41)0.06
  1. Cell counts (B, CD4T, CD8T, natural killer, eosinophil, and monocyte) and batch (as a categorical variable) were also included in the multivariable analysis. All factors were obtained at DNAm measurement except for stimulated C-peptide which is measured at DCCT eligibility
  2. MET metabolic equivalent of task
  3. *Time-weighted HbA1c from DCCT baseline to DNAm measurement
  4. Level of activity on the job, at school, or in home making: sedentary such as office work with occasional inter-office walking; moderate activity requires considerable but not constant lifting, walking, bending, pulling, etc. such as homemaker with family and without domestic assistance; and strenuous activity requires almost constant lifting, bending, pulling, scrubbing, etc. such as furniture mover
  5. ‡According to the international classification by Ainsworth used by American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), light, moderate, hard, and very hard activity was allocated 3, 4, 6, and 9 METs, respectively. For each participant, these allocated MET values were multiplied by the time (min) spent in that activity to obtain the MET for that level of activity. The sum of METs from all activities was recorded as the total leisure time activity for each participant. Subjects then were categorized into three groups based on the ACSM recommendation for METs min/week [17, 18]