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Table 5 General characteristics, cognitive performance, serum B vitamin biomarkers and oxidative biomarkers of study populations for DNA methylation discovery and validation

From: Dietary intakes and biomarker patterns of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 can be associated with cognitive impairment by hypermethylation of redox-related genes NUDT15 and TXNRD1

  Human Methylation450K BeadChip for discovery group MassARRAY EpiTYPER for validation group
MCI Controls FDR adjusted P value MCI Controls FDR adjusted P value
N = 7 N = 5 N = 102 N = 68
General characteristics
Age 60.0 ± 2.4 61.4 ± 2.9 0.481 59.6 ± 3.0 59.6 ± 3.4 1.000
Gender (M/F) 3/4 2/3 1 40/62 40/28 0.041*
Education years 9.1 ± 3.3 10.8 ± 1.6 0.474 9 (9, 12) 11 (9, 15) 0.582
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 ± 2.3 24.1 ± 2.4 0.386 24.2 ± 2.5 25.0 ± 2.7 0.134
Current smoker, n(%) 3 (42.9%) 2 (40.0%) 1 25 (24.5%) 25 (36.8%) 0.226
Current drinker, n(%) 1 (14.3%) 2 (40.0%) 0.572 19 (18.6%) 32 (47.1%) < 0.001*
Diabetes, n(%) 3 (42.9%) 0 (0.0%) 0.407 20 (19.6%) 8 (11.8%) 0.375
Hypertension, n(%) 3 (42.9%) 2 (40.0%) 1 31 (31.4%) 22 (32.3%) 0.842
CHD, n(%) 2 (28.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0.416 5 (4.9%) 2 (2.9%) 0.691
Cognitive performance
MMSE 28.0 (24.0, 29.0) 28.0 (29.0, 29.0) 0.411 28.0 (27.0, 29.0) 28.5 (27.0, 30.0) 0.226
MoCA 20.3 ± 2.8 26.6 ± 0.9 0.005* 22.4 ± 3.0 26.1 ± 2.3 < 0.001*
AVLT-IR 13.3 ± 4.1 16.8 ± 2.8 0.323 15.3 ± 4.5 18.4 ± 4.7 < 0.001*
AVLT-SR 4.6 ± 3.6 6.4 ± 1.5 0.474 5.1 ± 2.7 6.4 ± 2.3 0.003*
AVLT-LR 3.9 ± 4.0 3.8 ± 2.7 0.96 4 (2, 7) 6 (3, 8) 0.007*
SDMT 30.4 ± 14.3 41.2 ± 8.6 0.336 33 (25, 40) 37 (31, 46) 0.015*
LMT 8.0 ± 3.6 16.2 ± 3.1 0.010* 10.0 (5.5, 13.0) 14.5 (10.0, 16.5) < 0.001*
DSF 6.5 ± 1.0 8.8 ± 0.8 0.010* 7.2 ± 1.3 7.9 ± 1.5 0.008*
DSB 4.3 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 0.4 0.474 4 (3, 5) 4 (4, 5) 0.016*
Dietary B vitamin intakes
Vitamin B6 (mg/day) 1.9 (1.4, 2.0) 2.6 (1.5, 2.8) 0.596 2.2 (1.8, 2.6) 2.2 (1.7, 2.7) 0.720
Folate (μg/day) 311.6 (203.6, 496.4) 577.2 (239.4, 705.0) 0.596 307.5 (242.6, 442.7) 376.7 (271.8, 532.5) 0.019*
Vitamin B12 (μg/day) 1.2 (0.3, 2.8) 3.2 (1.8, 3.9) 0.427 2.0 (1.3, 2.9) 2.0 (1.2, 3.1) 0.936
Serum B vitamin biomarkers
Vitamin B6 (ng/L) 650.3 ± 125.0 542.3 ± 108.5 0.326 618.6 (531.2, 709.2) 596.5 (514.0, 645.9) 0.193
Folate (μg/L) 15.0 ± 5.6 30.2 ± 3.7 0.003* 17.4 (11.2, 22.8) 32.2 (28.0, 35.6) < 0.001*
Vitamin B12 (ng/L) 184.0 (113.0, 305.0) 284.0 (216.0, 333.5) 0.573 211.5 (174.8, 262.9) 198.5 (143.5, 256.3) 0.321
Hcy (μmol/L) 22.5 ± 2.9 9.8 ± 2.8 < 0.001* 21.1 (18.3, 23.4) 9.4 (6.7, 11.9) < 0.001*
Oxidative biomarkers
ROS (IU/ml) 1000.8 ± 345.3 779.1 ± 424.8 0.474 1043.8 (780.2, 1209.5) 728.0 (493.8, 964.8) < 0.001*
MDA (mmol/L) 10.0 ± 1.7 7.0 ± 3.5 0.225 9.7 ± 2.8 8.1 ± 2.6 0.003*
8-OHdG (ng/L) 338.1 ± 112.2 185.2 ± 46.3 0.061 271.0 (201.1, 341.1) 151.2 (125.9, 176.7) < 0.001*
8-iso-PGF2α (ng/L) 221.6 ± 59.1 118.2 ± 56.22 0.049* 188.0 (152.0, 279.6) 114.0 (90.3, 144.3) < 0.001*
  1. MMSE mini-mental state examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, AVLT-IR auditory verbal learning test-immediate recall, AVLT-SR auditory verbal learning test-short recall, AVLT-LR auditory verbal learning test-long recall, SDMT symbol digit modalities test, LMT logical memory test, DSF digit span forwards, DSB digit span backwards, BMI body mass index, CHD coronary heart disease, Hcy homocysteine, ROS reactive oxygen species, MDA malondialdehyde, 8-OHdG 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2α 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, FDR false discovery rate
  2. Data shown as median (interquartile range) were compared between two groups using the Mann—Whitney U test
  3. Data shown as mean ± standard deviation were compared between two groups using the Student t test
  4. Data shown as n (%) were compared between two groups using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  5. P < 0.05