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Table 3 Longitudinal associations of dietary intake of folate with global and domain-specific cognitive decline

From: Dietary intakes and biomarker patterns of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 can be associated with cognitive impairment by hypermethylation of redox-related genes NUDT15 and TXNRD1

Cognitive performance Folate (μg/day)
1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile 4th quartile
MMSE B (95%CI) − 0.11 (− 0.25, 0.04) 0.09 (− 0.05, 0.23) Ref 0.06 (− 0.09, 0.22)
P value 0.155 0.188 Ref 0.418
MoCA B (95%CI) − 0.17 (− 0.40, 0.06) − 0.04 (− 0.25, 0.17) Ref 0.25 (0.01, 0.48)
P value 0.14 0.732 Ref 0.039*
AVLT-IR B (95%CI) 0.32 (− 0.04, 0.67) 0.09 (− 0.24, 0.42) Ref − 0.07 (− 0.44, 0.30)
P value 0.081 0.604 Ref 0.7
AVLT-SR B (95%CI) 0.07 (− 0.1, 0.24) 0.01 (− 0.18, 0.20) Ref 0.23 (0.05, 0.41)
P value 0.405 0.939 Ref 0.013*
AVLT-LR B (95%CI) 0.12 (− 0.07, 0.32) − 0.10 (− 0.29, 0.08) Ref − 0.01 (− 0.21, 0.20)
P value 0.219 0.286 Ref 0.966
SDMT B (95%CI) 0.57 (− 0.18, 1.33) 0.56 (− 0.14, 1.27) Ref 0.51 (− 0.28, 1.30)
P value 0.138 0.119 Ref 0.207
LMT B (95%CI) − 0.03 (− 0.51, 0.45) 0.01 (− 0.44, 0.46) Ref 0.60 (0.10, 1.10)
P value 0.903 0.963 Ref 0.019*
DSF B (95%CI) − 0.01 (− 0.11, 0.08) − 0.07 (− 0.16, 0.02) Ref 0.12 (0.02, 0.22)
P value 0.771 0.138 Ref 0.023*
DSB B (95%CI) − 0.01 (− 0.09, 0.09) − 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.06) Ref 0.05 (− 0.04, 0.15)
P value 0.997 0.497 Ref 0.266
  1. MMSE mini-mental state examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, AVLT-IR auditory verbal learning test-immediate recall, AVLT-SR auditory verbal learning test-short recall, AVLT-LR auditory verbal learning test-long recall, SDMT symbol digit modalities test, LMT logical memory test, DSF digit span forwards, DSB digit span backwards
  2. B: regression coefficients of linear mixed-effect models
  3. P < 0.05