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Table 1 An overview of the effects of peptides on different epigenetic systems

From: Peptides as epigenetic modulators: therapeutic implications

Epigenetic mechanism Peptide Effect Type Source Status Reference
DNA methylation Short peptides Inhibition Direct Endogenous/synthetic Pre-clinical [59,60,61]
Inhibition Indirect Endogenous Pre-clinical [62,63,64]
BCM7 Inhibition Indirect Milk Pre-clinical [65,66,67]
GM7 Inhibition Indirect Wheat Pre-clinical [66]
Histone methylation HIP Inhibition Indirect Endogenous Clinical [68]
EZH2 antagonists Inhibition Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [69]
WHSC1 antagonist Inhibition Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [70]
Histone demethylation LSD1 antagonists Inhibition Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [71]
Histone acetylation Lunasin Inhibition Direct Soybean Clinical [72]
Histone deacetylation Romidepsin Inhibition Direct Bacterial Approved [73]
Burkholdacs Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [74]
Spiruchostatins Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [75]
Thailandepsin Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [76]
FR901375 Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [77]
Largazole Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [78]
Plitidepsin Inhibition Direct Tunica Clinical [79]
Chlamydocin Inhibition Direct Fungal Pre-clinical [80]
Trapoxins Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [81]
CHAP Inhibition Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [82, 83]
Apicidin Inhibition Direct Bacterial Pre-clinical [84]
Microsporins Inhibition Direct Fungal Pre-clinical [85]
Azumamides Inhibition Direct Sponge Pre-clinical [86]
FR235222 Inhibition Direct Fungal Pre-clinical [87]
AS1387392 Inhibition Direct Fungal Pre-clinical [88]
miRNA LK-L1C/K6W/L8C miR-29b ↑ Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [89]
LKKLLKLLKKWLKLKGX LKKLLKLLKKLWKLKGX miR-155 ↓ Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [90]
L50 miR-21 ↓ Direct Synthetic Pre-clinical [91]
LncRNA BNP (Nesiritide) LSINCT5 ↑ Direct Endogenous Approved [92]