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Table 2 Association results for the leading CpG sites from each locus selected for the sensitivity and downstream analyses

From: DNA methylation links prenatal smoking exposure to later life health outcomes in offspring

    Meta-analysis Sensitivity and downstream analyses
    5 studies, N = 2821 Never-smokers, N = 1298 Paternal smoking, N = 1774 Dose-response analysis, N = 1134
CpG Chr Gene β SE P value β SE P value β SE P value β SE P value
cg15325070 1   0.014 0.003 9.23E−08 0.009 0.004 1.92E−02 0.000 0.003 9.16E−01 0.168 0.034 6.81E−07
cg25189904 1 GNG12 − 0.020 0.003 1.28E−10 − 0.018 0.004 1.87E−05 − 0.004 0.003 1.52E−01 − 0.146 0.032 5.85E−06
cg14179389 1 GFI1 − 0.028 0.003 5.00E−20 − 0.027 0.004 1.07E−09 − 0.004 0.003 1.77E−01 − 0.214 0.031 4.92E−12
cg04749740 2   0.015 0.003 9.21E−08 0.015 0.004 9.64E−04 0.004 0.003 1.03E−01 0.061 0.034 6.98E−02
cg06635952 2 ANXA4 0.011 0.002 5.54E−08 0.011 0.003 1.88E−04 0.001 0.002 9.53E−01 0.073 0.029 1.12E−02
cg11025974 2 CACNB4 0.016 0.002 9.06E−11 0.018 0.004 1.57E−07 − 0.001 0.002 6.41E−01 0.169 0.033 2.19E−07
cg14157435 2 NRP2 − 0.046 0.006 1.15E−13 − 0.042 0.008 6.01E−07 − 0.014 0.006 2.80E−02 − 0.201 0.033 9.33E−10
cg05783384 2   0.021 0.004 2.59E−08 0.014 0.005 1.15E−02 0.003 0.004 3.92E−01 0.097 0.033 3.26E−03
cg05204104 2 ARL4C 0.017 0.003 4.81E−12 0.016 0.004 6.02E−05 0.006 0.003 7.96E−02 0.036 0.033 2.73E−01
cg00174179 3 RHOA − 0.006 0.001 7.01E−09 − 0.006 0.002 3.22E−04 − 0.002 0.001 5.21E−02 − 0.104 0.029 3.89E−04
cg16449012 4 FAM184B 0.014 0.002 3.10E−08 0.021 0.004 4.42E−08 0.003 0.002 1.62E−01 0.119 0.03 7.81E−05
cg05575921 5 AHRR − 0.019 0.002 3.53E−18 − 0.011 0.003 1.19E−04 − 0.008 0.003 2.75E−03 − 0.134 0.027 5.91E−07
cg21253335 5   0.017 0.003 1.25E−08 0.014 0.004 1.12E−03 0.004 0.003 1.17E−01 0.108 0.033 1.04E−03
cg01952185 5   0.019 0.003 3.31E−12 0.017 0.004 5.81E−05 0.005 0.003 4.49E−02 0.128 0.03 1.67E−05
cg05634495 6   0.016 0.003 3.14E−08 0.014 0.005 2.54E−03 0.002 0.003 5.00E−01 0.088 0.033 6.86E−03
cg00794911 6   − 0.012 0.002 5.20E−10 − 0.007 0.003 1.25E−02 − 0.005 0.002 1.15E−02 − 0.115 0.034 6.42E−04
cg25879142 7   0.018 0.003 1.79E−08 0.013 0.004 3.05E−03 0.003 0.003 3.73E−01 0.121 0.031 1.23E−04
cg20117519 7   0.022 0.004 2.39E−08 0.022 0.006 1.70E−04 0.007 0.004 4.08E−02 0.112 0.033 6.72E−04
cg19089201 7 MYO1G 0.035 0.003 1.18E−31 0.030 0.004 5.75E−12 0.007 0.003 1.51E−02 0.225 0.032 2.24E−12
cg04598670 7   − 0.019 0.003 8.33E−08 − 0.016 0.005 4.54E−03 − 0.007 0.003 3.95E−02 − 0.178 0.034 1.54E−07
cg25949550 7 CNTNAP2 − 0.007 0.001 5.41E−27 − 0.007 0.001 1.45E−14 − 0.002 0.001 6.57E−03 − 0.157 0.022 1.65E−12
cg11207515 7 CNTNAP2 − 0.023 0.003 1.03E−13 − 0.020 0.004 2.75E−06 − 0.011 0.003 2.46E−04 − 0.145 0.032 7.02E−06
cg15578140 7 MIR548F3 0.011 0.002 7.54E−09 0.014 0.003 7.89E−06 − 0.001 0.002 5.70E−01 0.152 0.031 1.12E−06
cg17199018 8 ZNF395 − 0.017 0.003 3.85E−09 − 0.016 0.004 7.10E−05 − 0.003 0.003 3.10E−01 − 0.121 0.033 2.63E−04
cg14563637 9   0.016 0.003 1.19E−09 0.016 0.004 9.26E−05 0.003 0.002 1.69E−01 0.092 0.031 3.26E−03
cg14540913 9 PRRX2 0.013 0.002 7.57E−09 0.015 0.003 1.81E−05 0.001 0.002 5.79E−01 0.148 0.032 2.62E−06
cg13822849 9 OLFM1 0.007 0.001 2.87E−08 0.007 0.002 5.84E−05 0.003 0.002 2.90E−02 0.126 0.03 3.24E−05
cg11813497 10 FRMD4A 0.026 0.003 9.27E−19 0.022 0.004 1.46E−07 − 0.001 0.003 6.26E−01 0.117 0.032 2.81E−04
cg05697249 11 C11orf52 0.015 0.002 1.30E−11 0.015 0.003 8.68E−06 0.003 0.002 1.54E−01 0.136 0.035 8.25E−05
cg18493761 11   0.037 0.004 7.30E−21 0.032 0.006 4.99E−08 0.008 0.004 2.60E−02 0.154 0.034 4.82E−06
cg05549655 15 CYP1A1 0.010 0.001 1.04E−28 0.009 0.001 6.03E−13 0.002 0.001 4.28E−02 0.230 0.028 1.92E−16
cg13834112 15   0.013 0.002 3.55E−08 0.018 0.004 6.39E−07 0.001 0.002 8.10E−01 0.120 0.031 1.24E−04
cg00253658 16   0.037 0.004 3.44E−19 0.032 0.006 6.54E−08 0.005 0.005 2.81E−01 0.166 0.033 4.83E−07
cg04358214 16 C16orf70 0.022 0.004 9.56E−08 0.021 0.006 5.93E−04 0.005 0.004 2.42E−01 0.090 0.031 3.94E−03
cg12984635 19 ETHE1 0.015 0.002 2.17E−09 0.014 0.003 5.87E−05 0.001 0.002 7.33E−01 0.116 0.031 1.49E−04
cg06758350 21 RUNX1 0.030 0.005 1.68E−10 0.016 0.007 2.03E−02 0.002 0.005 7.09E−01 0.140 0.034 3.92E−05
  1. The analyses were conducted separately in each participating cohort, adjusted for study-specific covariates as necessary, and combined using inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis. The effect size estimates for the dose-response analysis represent the difference in blood DNA methylation (in standard deviation units) per three additional cigarettes smoked per day in pregnancy
  2. Chr chromosome, β effect size estimate, SE standard error