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Table 3 Main epigenetic modifications in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) and type 1 diabetes (T1D)

From: The emerging role of epigenetics in human autoimmune disorders

Autoimmune disease DNA methylation Histone modification miRNA
AITD ↑ T cells [133,134,135] ↓ H3, H4 acetylation
IFN-α enhances H3K4 methylation
[24, 134, 136, 137]
↓ miR-155-5p, ↓ miR-146a-5p, ↓ miR-125a-3p
↓ miR-197a-3p
Fibroblasts: ↑ miR-21-5p [138,139,140,141]
T1D ↑ T cell
↑ FOXP3 [150, 156, 157]
↑ H3 acetylation [159] ↑ miR-510
↓ miR-342, ↓ miR-191 [160]