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Table 2 Epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)

From: The emerging role of epigenetics in human autoimmune disorders

Autoimmune disease DNA methylation Histone modification miRNA
SLE ↓ CD70, ↓ CD11a,
↓ CD40L, ↓ perforin
↓ T cell
↓ IFN signature [50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63]
↑ H3, H4 methylation
↑ H3, H4 acetylation [64,65,66,67]
↑ miR-21, ↑ miR-148a [68,69,70,71]
RA ↓ T cell
↑ Synoviocytes [79, 80]
↑ H3 acetylation [82,83,84,85,86,87,88] ↑ miR-146a, strong link between many microRNAs and DNA methylation [90,91,92,93]
SSc ↓ T cell
↓ Fibroblasts
↑ Wnt pathway genes [96,97,98, 102, 103]
Fibroblasts:↓ H3, H4 acetylation
[104, 107, 108]
↑ miR-29a, ↑ miR-196a [109,110,111,112,113,114]
SS ↓ Type-I IFN pathway genes
↓ T cells [115,116,117,118,119,120,121]
No large-scale analysis ↑ miR-146a [122]