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Table 3 Relative risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) for being physically frail or pre-frail according to epigenetic age acceleration at age 70

From: DNA methylation and the epigenetic clock in relation to physical frailty in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

Epigenetic age acceleration measures, per year increase Relative risk ratios (95% CI)
Extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration Not frail Pre-frail Frail
 Adjusted for age and sex Reference 1.02 (1.00, 1.04), p = 0.083 1.06 (1.02, 1.10), p = 0.006
 Multivariable-adjusted1 Reference 1.02 (0.99, 1.04), p = 0.123 1.05 (1.01, 1.09), p = 0.023
Intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration
 Adjusted for age and sex Reference 1.01 (0.99, 1.04), p = 0.248 1.03 (0.98, 1.08), p = 0.225
 Multivariable-adjusted1 Reference 1.01 (0.99, 1.04), p = 0.316 1.02 (0.97, 1.06), p = 0.523
  1. 1Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, and number of chronic physical illnesses