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Table 2 Associations between epigenetic age acceleration and growth and physical development and in 11.0–13.2-year-old adolescents

From: The epigenetic clock and pubertal, neuroendocrine, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes in adolescents

Outcome: Epigenetic age acceleration (years) (unstandardized residual regressing DNA methylation age on chronological age and blood cell count types)
Model 1 Model 2
B/OR 95% CI p B/OR 95% CI p
Anthropometry
 Weight-for-age (SD) 0.06 0.01; 0.11 0.02 0.05 0.00; 0.10 0.051
 Height-for-age (SD) 0.08 0.03; 0.13 0.003 0.07 0.02; 0.12 0.01
 Body-mass-index-for-age (SD) − 0.04 − 0.01; 0.09 0.15 0.02 − 0.02; 0.07 0.31
 Mid-parental target height (SD) minus height-for-age (SD) − 0.09 − 0.14; − 0.04 0.001 − 0.09 − 0.14; − 0.03 0.001
Tanner Staging Questionnaire
 Pubic hair development (I–IV) 1.09 0.98; 1.21 0.12 1.15 0.99; 1.25 0.07
 Breast/genitals development (I–IV) 1.13 1.02; 1.25 0.018 1.15 1.03; 1.29 0.014
Pubertal development scale
 Stage (I–III) 1.16 1.02; 1.32 0.015 1.19 1.05; 1.34 0.008
  1. Note: B refers to unstandardized regression coefficient from generalized model with Gaussian reference distribution; OR refers to odds ratio from generalized linear model with ordinal logistic reference distribution; 95% CI refers to 95% confidence interval
  2. Model 1 is adjusted for adolescent sex and the first three multidimensional scaling components based on genome-wide data; model 2 is adjusted for model 1 covariates plus birth weight, gestational age, parity, delivery mode, maternal age and body mass index at delivery, maternal smoking, alcohol and glycyrrhizin in licorice use during pregnancy, and highest achieved education of either parent in adolescence follow-up