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Table 4 Associations between parental factors and gestational age acceleration. N = 863

From: Epigenetic gestational age acceleration: a prospective cohort study investigating associations with familial, sociodemographic and birth characteristics

Exposure Mean difference in gestational age acceleration (days)
Model 1 Model 2
MD 95% CI p MD 95% CI p
Maternal smoking
 Never smoker (Ref)   0.49 (Ref)   0.50
 Former smoker 0.01 − 0.8, 0.7   0.03 − 0.7, 0.8  
 Current smoker 0.5 − 0.5, 1.6   0.5 − 0.7, 1.6  
Paternal smoking
 Never smoker (Ref)   0.41 (Ref)   0.40
 Former smoker − 0.9 − 2.7, 0.9   − 0.9 − 2.7, 0.9  
 Current smoker 0.1 − 0.8, 0.9   0.1 − 0.8, 0.9  
Maternal alcohol consumption
 Heavy/binge drinker (Ref)   0.26 (Ref)   0.25
 Light/moderate drinker − 0.2 − 1.2, 0.8   − 0.3 − 1.3, 0.8  
 Pregnancy abstainer − 0.4 − 1.4, 0.7   − 0.4 − 1.4, 0.6  
 Never drinker − 1.2 − 2.9, 0.5   − 1.2 − 2.9, 0.5  
Paternal alcohol consumption
 Never drinker (Ref)   0.54 (Ref)   0.67
 Light/moderate drinker − 0.9 − 1.9, 0.1   − 0.8 − 1.9, 0.2  
 Heavy/binge drinker 0.2 − 1.8, 2.2   0.4 − 1.7, 2.4  
Maternal depression depressed 0.4 − 0.4, 1.1 0.32 0.4 − 0.3, 1.2 0.28
Paternal depression depressed −0.5 − 1.8, 0.8 0.42 − 0.6 − 1.8, 0.8 0.49
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI
 Under/normal weight (Ref)   < 0.001 (Ref)   < 0.001
 Overweight 1.5 0.6, 2.5   1.6 0.7, 2.6  
 Obese 2.7 1.2, 4.3   2.9 1.3, 4.4  
Paternal BMI
 Under/normal weight (Ref)   0.53 (Ref)   0.58
 Overweight 0.1 − 0.7, 0.9   0.1 − 0.7, 0.9  
 Obese 0.4 − 0.9, 1.8   0.4 − 1.0, 1.8  
Parental relationship status
 Married (Ref)   0.37 (Ref)   0.47
 Cohabiting 0.1 − 0.8, 1.1   0.1 − 0.9, 1.1  
 Single 0.8 − 1.0, 2.5   0.7 − 1.1, 2.6  
Parity
 0 (Ref)   0.88 (Ref)   0.83
 1 − 0.3 − 1.3, 0.7   − 0.4 − 1.3, 0.7  
 2+ 0.1 − 1.6, 1.8   0.1 − 1.6, 1.8  
Maternal age
 35+ (Ref)   0.60 (Ref)   0.69
 25–34 − 0.5 − 1.5, 0.5   − 0.5 − 1.4, 0.5  
 15–24 − 0.1 − 1.3, 1.2   0.03 − 1.3, 1.4  
Paternal age
 35+ (Ref)   0.27 (Ref)   0.32
 25–34 − 0.4 − 1.2, 0.3   − 0.4 − 1.1, 0.4  
 15–24 − 0.7 − 2.2, 0.8   − 0.6 − 2.2, 0.9  
Pregnancy complications − 0.4 − 1.2, 0.5 0.42 − 0.6 − 1.5, 0.3 0.16
  1. Results are from multiply imputed data; coefficients are mean differences (MD) adjusted for sex and cell type proportion (model 1) and additionally for parental social class, education, housing tenure and financial difficulties (model 2). Parental depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The pregnancy complication analysis additionally adjusted for all other parental behaviour covariates
  2. BMI body mass index