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Table 1 General characteristics of the controls, fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) and frozen embryo transfer (FET)-derived newborns, and their mothers included in the study. The SD of measures based on international growth references adjusted for gestational age at birth and gender. The mean values ± SD are presented and the significant difference between studied groups for total amount of samples is calculated by Two-Way ANOVA (P value)

From: rs10732516 polymorphism at the IGF2/H19 locus associates with genotype-specific effects on placental DNA methylation and birth weight of newborns conceived by assisted reproductive technology

  Country Control (n = 157) Fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) (n = 62) Frozen embryo transfer (FET) (n = 24) P value
Newborns
 Birth weight (g) Total 3700 ± 436 3525 ± 548 3805 ± 601 0.02
FI 3667.7 ± 412.2 (n = 100) 3443.4 ± 502.8 (n = 29) 3846.3 ± 451.4 (n = 18)  
EE 3758.9 ± 473.9 (n = 57) 3595.8 ± 582.4 (n = 33) 3679.8 ± 970 (n = 6)  
 Birth weight SD Total 0.21 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 1 0.6 ± 1 NS
FI 0.1 ± 0.9 (n = 100) − 0.1 ± 0.9 (n = 29) 0.6 ± 0.9 (n = 18)  
EE 0.4 ± 0.6 (n = 57) 0.4 ± 1 (n = 33) 0.6 ± 0.9 (n = 6)  
 Length (cm) Total 51.0 ± 1.9 50.3 ± 2.3 51.1 ± 2.3 0.04
FI 51 ± 2 (n = 100) 50 ± 2 (n = 29) 51 ± 2 (n = 18)  
EE 51 ± 2 (n = 57) 51 ± 2 (n = 33) 51 ± 4 (n = 6)  
 Length SD Total − 0.1 ± 0.8 − 0.1 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 0.8 NS
FI − 0.2 ± 0.9 (n = 100) − 0.3 ± 0.8 (n = 29) − 0.0 ± 0.9 (n = 18)  
EE 0.2 ± 0.8 (n = 57) 0.1 ± 0.7 (n = 33) 0.6 ± 0.5 (n = 6)  
 Head circumference (cm) Total 35.5 ± 1.3 (n = 155) 35.2 ± 1.7 35.4 ± 1.9 NS
FI 35.5 ± 1 (n = 100) 34.7 ± 2 (n = 29) 35.6 ± 2 (n = 18)  
EE 35.5 ± 1 (n = 55) 35.5 ± 2 (n = 33) 34.9 ± 2 (n = 6)  
 Head circumference SD Total 0.3 ± 0.8 (n = 155) 0.3 ± 1.1 0.4 ± 1.3 NS
FI 0.3 ± 0.9 (n = 100) −0.1 ± 1 (n = 29) 0.4 ± 1.4 (n = 18)  
EE 0.4 ± 0.8 (n = 55) 0.7 ± 1 (n = 33) 0.4 ± 0.7 (n = 6)  
 Placenta (g) Total 565 ± 141 514 ± 118 (n = 61) 642 ± 187 0.04
FI 626.5 ± 126.4 (n = 100) 578.4 ± 105.3 (n = 29) 687.4 ± 176 (n = 18)  
EE 456.7 ± 90.5 (n = 57) 454.8 ± 97.9 (n = 32) 504.5 ± 159.6 (n = 6)  
 Gestational age (weeks) Total 40.3 ± 1.2 39.6 ± 1.4 39.8 ± 1.7 0.002
FI 40.4 ± 1 (n = 100) 39.9 ± 1.3 (n = 29) 40 ± 1 (n = 18)  
EE 40 ± 1.4 (n = 57) 39.3 ± 1.4 (n = 33) 39.3 ± 3 (n = 6)  
 Males Total 53% 55% 58% NS
FI 52% 41% 67%  
EE 54% 67% 33%  
 Females Total 47% 45% 42% NS
FI 48% 59% 33%  
EE 46% 33% 67%  
 Apgar score (5 min) Total 9 ± 1 (n = 156) 9 ± 1 9 ± 1 NS
FI 9 ± 1 (n = 100) 9 ± 0.5 (n = 29) 9 ± 0.5 (n = 18)  
EE 9 ± 1 (n = 56) 9 ± 0.7 (n = 33) 9 ± 0.8 (n = 6)  
Mothers
 Age (years) Total 31 ± 5 34 ± 5 35 ± 4 < 0.001
FI 32 ± 5 (n = 100) 35 ± 4 (n = 29) 36 ± 3 (n = 18)  
EE 29 ± 6 (n = 57) 33 ± 5 (n = 33) 33 ± 5 (n = 6)  
 Parity Total 0.7 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.5 0.4 ± 0.6 0.003
FI 0.6 ± 0.7 (n = 100) 0.2 ± 0.5 (n = 29) 0.3 ± 0.5 (n = 18)  
EE 0.8 ± 1 (n = 57) 0.4 ± 0.6 (n = 33) 0.7 ± 0.8 (n = 6)  
 BMI Total 23.1 ± 4 (n = 155) 23.0 ± 4 24.2 ± 4 NS
FI 22.8 ± 3.5 (n = 99) 22.9 ± 3.4 (n = 29) 23.8 ± 3.4 (n = 18)  
EE 23.7 ± 5 (n = 56) 23.2 ± 5 (n = 33) 25.5 ± 4.3 (n = 6)  
  1. FI Finland, EE Estonia, NS not significant