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Table 1 Level of evidence (LoE) of methylation markers assessed in two or more study series

From: Prognostic DNA methylation markers for sporadic colorectal cancer: a systematic review

Marker Population Reported association LoE REMARK score Median (range)c
Consistent resultsa
 IGFBP3 TNM stages 2–3 Poor prognosis II 13.8 (11–14)
 CDKN2A (p16) TNM stages 1–3b Poor prognosis II 11.5 (6.5–17.5)
 WNT5a TNM stages 1–4 No influence on prognosis II 12.5 (−)
 HPP1 TNM stage 4 Poor prognosis II 12.5 (10–15)
 RET TNM stage 2 Poor prognosis II–III 15.5 (−)
 TFPA2E TNM stages 1–4 Good prognosis III 7.8 (5–10.5)
 Multimarker panel by Gaedcke et al. [40] Locally advanced rectal cancer Poor prognosis III 12 (−)
 Multimarker panel by Kandimalla et al. [45] TNM stage II Poor prognosis III 15
 HLTF TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis III–IV 15 (10–17.5)
 HPP1 TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis IV 12.5 (10–15)
 EVL TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis IV 11
 CD109 TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis IV 11
 NRCAM TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis IV 11
 FLNC TNM stages 1–4 Poor prognosis IV 11
Inconclusive results
 BNIP3     11.5 (17.5–9)
 MLH1     11.3 (10–15)
 MGMT     12 (5–17.5)
 RASSF1A     10.5 (5–17.5)
 CDKN2A (p14)     8 (5–17.5)
 APC     8.5 (5–17.5)
 CHFR     16 (17.5–14.5)
 ID4     9.5 (−)
 MYOD1     9.5 (9–10)
 SEPT9     14.75 (14.5–15)
 SFRP2     11 (10.5–11.5)
 MLH1 & CDKN2A     11 (10–12)
  1. a≥ 2 studies in similar populations showing consistent results
  2. b“Summarized definition”; subgroup definitions differ between specific studies
  3. cAll studies included that contribute to LoE, or all overall results if LoE was inconclusive