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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study cohort

From: Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

  O-GDM O-T1DM O-BP O-GDM vs. O-BP
p value
O-T1DM vs. O-BP
p value
N (total = 206) 82 67 57   
Maternal characteristics
 Pregestational BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 (5.6) 21.7 (1.9) 21.2 (3.5) <0.001 0.301
 Maternal age at delivery 30.4 (5.2) 26.4 (4.7) 26.8 (4.6) <0.001 0.645
 Maternal smoking status (yes/no) 22/69 (32%) 37/59 (63%) 26/45 (58%) <0.006 0.610
 Family history of diabetes (yes vs. no) 26% (21/82) 25% (17/67) 16% (9/57) 0.166 0.191
Offspring anthropometric data
 Age (years) 30.2 (2.1) 30.8 (2.4) 30.8 (2.4) 0.183 0.879
 Gender (male) 52% (43/82) 46% (31/67) 46% (26/57) 0.429 0.942
 Height (m) 1.76 (0.10) 1.74 (0.10) 1.74 (0.10) 0.481 0.676
 Weight (kg) 77.8 (17.4) 78.3 (17.9) 75.3 (16.5) 0.398 0.331
 Total body fat (%) 29.8% (0.1) 31.4% (0.1) 28.7% (0.1) 0.428 0.093
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.2 (5.1) 26.0 (5.9) 24.6 (3.9) 0.493 0.113
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 15% (12/82) 16% (11/67) 7% (4/57) 0.166 0.110
 Waist circumference 85.0 (12.3) 84.3 (11.7) 82.0 (11.2) 0.149 0.265
 Mean blood pressure—systolic (mmHg) 117 (9.1) 117 (8.8) 116 (11.9) 0.606 0.626
 Mean blood pressure—diastolic (mmHg) 74 (7.43) 71 (9.02) 71.0 (7.28) 0.023 0.859
Results of OGTTa
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.0 (0.7) 4.9 (0.4) 4.9 (0.3) 0.245 0.381
 30-min plasma glucose (mmol/l) 8.2 (1.71) 7.8 (1.65) 7.3 (1.6) 0.006 0.125
 2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.0 (1.8) 6.3 (1.7) 5.3 (1.2) 0.016 0.001
 HbA1C_DCCT (%) 5.4 (0.3) 5.3 (0.3) 5.3 (0.3) 0.079 0.569
 Abnormal glucose tolerance (IFG, IGT, or T2DM) 13% (11/82) 13% (9/67) 5% (3/57) 0.116 0.125
 HOMA-IRb 1.77 (1.56–2.02) 1.95 (1.71–2.22) 1.72 (1.47–2.02) 0.784 0.222
Plasma samplesb
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 48.9 (43.3–55.2) 54.2 (47.9–61.4) 48.6 (41.9–56.4) 0.953 0.255
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 1.00 (0.76–1.31) 0.391 0.233
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.33 (1.26–1.41) 1.44 (1.37–1.52) 1.36 (1.26–1.48) 0.605 0.241
  1. Data is mean (SD) or percentage, unless otherwise indicated. All comparisons are to the O-BP control group. Analysis of differences (means or proportions) between groups was performed by independent samples t test or chi-square test, respectively. p values <0.05 are in bold
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, IFG impaired fasting glucose, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, O-BP offspring of women from the background population, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, O-GDM offspring of women with gestational diabetes, O-T1DM offspring of women with type 1 diabetes, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. aBased on 2-h 75-g OGTT and evaluated according to the WHO criteria of 2006 [31]
  4. bData is presented as geometric mean and 95% confidence intervals