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Table 1 Associations of maternal and infant characteristics with birth-weight-for-gestational-age (BW/GA) z-score in project Viva infants (n = 476)

From: Birth weight-for-gestational age is associated with DNA methylation at birth and in childhood

  N (%) Unadjusted effect estimate (95% CI) Adjusteda effect estimate (95% CI)
Maternal age at enrollment, years
 <25 46 (9.7) −0.57 (−0.88,−0.27) −0.22 (−0.56, 0.13)
 25–<30 99 (20.8) −0.10 (−0.33, 0.13) −0.02 (−0.25, 0.21)
 30–<35 192 (40.3) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
 35–<40 108 (22.7) −0.02 (−0.24, 0.21) −0.09 (−0.31, 0.14)
 ≥40 31 (6.5) −0.06 (−0.42, 0.30) −0.14 (−0.49, 0.22)
Maternal race/ethnicity
 White 338 (71.0) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
 Black 56 (11.8) −0.29 (−0.56,−0.02) −0.26 (−0.55, 0.02)
 Hispanic 37 (7.8) −0.16 (−0.48, 0.17) −0.15 (−0.48, 0.18)
 Other 45 (9.5) −0.31 (−0.61,−0.02) −0.15 (−0.45, 0.15)
Education
 Less than college graduate 161 (33.8) −0.16 (−0.34, 0.02) −0.16 (−0.37, 0.05)
 ≥College graduate 315 (66.2) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category
 <18.5 18 (3.8) −0.40 (−0.85, 0.06) −0.33 (−0.78, 0.12)
 18.5–<25 285 (59.9) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
 25–<30 105 (22.1) 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) 0.28 (0.06, 0.49)
 ≥30 68 (14.3) 0.27 (0.01, 0.52) 0.28 (0.02, 0.54)
Smoking status
 Never 324 (68.1) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
 Former 100 (21.0) 0.03 (−0.18, 0.25) −0.07 (−0.28, 0.14)
 During pregnancy 52 (10.9) −0.20 (−0.48, 0.08) −0.12 (−0.41, 0.17)
Maternal glucose tolerance
 Normal 391 (82.1) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
 Isolated hyperglycemia 45 (9.5) 0.28 (−0.01, 0.58) 0.24 (−0.06, 0.53)
 Impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes 40 (8.4) 0.26 (−0.05, 0.57) 0.19 (−0.12, 0.50)
Parity
 ≥1 254 (53.4) 0.42 (0.25, 0.59) 0.41 (0.23, 0.59)
 0 222 (46.6) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 397 (83.4) 0.00 (−0.24, 0.23) 0.04 (−0.18, 0.27)
 Cesarean section 79 (16.6) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
Child sex
 Male 248 (52.1) −0.07 (−0.25, 0.10) −0.07 (−0.24, 0.10)
 Female 228 (47.9) 0.0 (ref) 0.0 (ref)
  1. aEstimates of effect were simultaneously adjusted for all other characteristics in the table