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Table 1 Characteristics of trials included in the analysis

From: Targeting epigenetic pathways in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a systematic review of hypomethylating agents trials

Study HMA Median Age (Range) FAB classificationa (%) BM Blast (%) Oligo-blastic AMLb (%) WHO AML (%) De novo AMLc (%) Secondary AML c (%) Type of CCR (%) No. of Patients Median F/U (mo) Formula of Experimental Drug
HMA CCR
Total Total
Silverman 2002 [25, 30] Azacitidine 68 (31-92) RA: 37 (19)
RARS: 8 (4)
RAEB: 66 (35)
RAEB-T: 45 (24)
CMMoL: 14 (7)
Othersd : 21 (11)
< 30%: 170 (89)
≥ 30%: 19 (10)
45 (24) 67 (35) 0 (0) 67 (35) BSC: 92 (100) 99 92 NR Azacitidine: 75 mg/m2/d subcutaneous injection in 7 day cycles beginning on days 1, 29, 57, and 85.
Fenaux 2009 [31, 57] Azacitidine 70 (38-88) RA: 0 (0)
RARS: 0 (0)
RAEB: 207 (35)
RAEB-T: 123 (24)
CMMoL: 11 (7)
< 30%: 356 (99)
≥ 30%: 2 (1)
123 (34) 113 (32) 0 (0) 113 (32) BSC: 105 (59)
LDAC: 49 (27)
IC: 25 (14)
179 179 21.1 Azacitidine: 75 mg/m2/d subcutaneous injection every 28 days for at least 6 cycles.
LDAC: 20 mg/m2/d subcutaneous injection for 14 d, every 28 days, at least 4 cycles.
IC: cytarabine 100-200 mg/m2/d continuous intravenous infusion for 7 days plus 3 days of either intravenous daunorubicin 40-65 mg/m2/d or idarubicin 9-12 mg/m2/d or mitoxantrone 8-12 mg/m2/d.
Lubbert 2011 [27, 28] Decitabine 70 (60-90) RA: 13 (6)
RARS: 5 (2)
RAEB: 125 (54)
RAEB-T: 75 (32)
CMMoL: 14 (6)
AML: 2 (1)
< 30%: 232 (99)
≥ 30%: 2 (1)
75 (32) 77 (32) 0 (0) 77 (32) BSC: 114 (100) 119 114 30 Decitabine: 15 mg/m2 in 2 doses, intravenous infusion every 8h for 3 d. This treatment cycle was repeated every 6 wks.
Kantarjian 2012 [29] Decitabine 73 (64-91) RA: 0 (0)
RARS: 0 (0)
RAEB: 0 (0)
RAEB-T: 123 (25)
AML: 363 (75)
CMMoL: 0 (0)
< 30%: 123 (25)
≥ 30%: 347 (72)
123 (25) 485 (100) 312 (64) 173 (36) BSC: 28 (12)
LDAC: 215 (88)
242 243 NR Decitabine: 20 mg/m2/d intravenous infusion for 5 d. This treatment cycle was repeated every 4 wks.
LDAC: 20 mg/m2/d subcutaneous injection for 10 consecutive days every 4 wks.
Dombret 2014 [26, 32] Azacitidine 75 (NR) RA: 0 (0)
RARS: 0 (0)
RAEB: 0 (0)
RAEB-T: 0 (0)
AML: 488 (100)
< 30%: 0 (0)
≥ 30%: 488 (100)
0 (0) 488 (100) NR e NR e BSC: 45 (18)
LDAC: 158 (64)
IC: 44 (18)
241 247 NR Azacitidine: 75 mg/m2/d subcutaneous for 7 d, 28 d cycle.
LDAC: 20 mg/m2 subcutaneous injection twice a day for 10 days with every 28 days cycle.
IC: standard 7 + 3 regimen
  1. a FAB classification: RA (refractory anemia), RARS (refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts), RAEB (refractory anemia with excessive blasts), RAEB-t (RAEB in transformation with BM blast 21-30%)), CMMoL (chronic myelomonocytic leukemia), AML (acute myeloid leukemia with BM blast more thatn 30%)
  2. b Oligoblasatic AML: BM blast counts 20-30%
  3. c De novo AML: the definition of de novo and secondary AML followed the revised recommendations of the International Working Group [58] (no clinical history of MDS, MPD or exposure to potential leukemogenic treatment or agents) and followed WHO classification.
  4. d Others: AML (n = 19), undefined leukemia (n = 1), undefined MDS (n = 1)
  5. e This study included both de novo and secondary AML. Total 158 patients had AML with myelodysplastic related change (AML-MRC).
  6. Abbreviation: NR (not reported), HMA (hypomethlating agents (DNA methyl-transferase inhibitor)), BSC (best supportive care), LDAC (low dose cytarabine), IC (intensive chemotherapy)