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Table 1 Study participant characteristics by maternal B vitamin concentrations: Newborn Epigenetic STudy (N = 496)

From: Maternal B vitamins: effects on offspring weight and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains

Variable   B12 (ng/L) PLP (nM/L) PA (nM/L) Hcy (umoL/L)
N = 489 N = 496 N = 496 N = 480
  N (%) Median (range)
Age at delivery (year)      
 20–29 278 (56%) 428.44 (56.13–2628.11) 6.66 (0.00–54.90) 2.85 (0.00–179.19) 0.69 (0.30–1.34)
 18–< 20 22 (4%) 419.05 (216.96–834.27) 7.30 (1.25–32.19) 3.43 (0.00–24.92) 0.75 (0.44–0.98)
 30–35 147 (30%) 495.38 (151.24–3664.91) 8.46 (0.00–173.86) 3.70 (0.00–218.44) 0.70 (0.33–1.54)
 36+ 50 (10%) 411.46 (148.62–2779.17) 9.02 (0.41–76.90) 2.85 (0.00–122.61) 0.71 (0.35–1.07)
Race/ethnicity      
 Black 186 (42%) 431.76 (109.44–1249.75) 5.62 (0.00–34.58) 2.41 (0.00–130.60) 0.70 (0.30–1.54)
 White 133 (30%) 493.67 (56.13–3664.91) 8.87 (0.00–173.86) 4.85 (0.00–218.44) 0.73 (0.44–1.19)
 Hispanic 121 (28%) 432.25 (93.47–2779.17) 8.07 (1.60–30.24) 2.94 (0.00–30.01) 0.69 (0.33–1.22)
Preterm birth      
 Term 468 (94%) 444.02 (56.13–3664.91) 7.35 (0.00–173.86) 3.21 (0.00–218.44) 0.70 (0.30–1.54)
 Preterm 29 (6%) 485.71 (162.05–891.89) 7.91 (0.00–34.58) 3.24 (0.00–30.01) 0.66 (0.33–1.08)
Marital status      
 Married 186 (38%) 485.98 (148.62–3664.91) 8.89 (0.00–173.86) 4.25 (0.00–218.44) 0.71 (0.30–1.22)
 Never married 141 (29%) 443.03 (56.13–2628.11) 5.86 (0.95–34.58) 2.57 (0.00–130.60) 0.70 (0.35–1.34)
 Living with partner 136 (28%) 406.87 (133.52–1570.18) 7.73 (0.00–31.59) 2.94 (0.00–35.09) 0.69 (0.44–1.54)
 Other 28 (5%) 398.20 (128.05–2779.17) 7.55 (0.00–35.12) 2.55 (0.00–11.38) 0.71 (0.33–1.10)
Parity (at enrollment)      
 Multiparous 320 (65%) 443.89 (56.13–3664.91) 6.74 (0.00–173.86) 2.77 (0.00–218.44) 0.69 (0.33–1.54)
 Nulliparous 176 (35%) 454.01 (109.44–1600.50) 9.02 (0.00–63.59) 4.34 (0.00–186.65) 0.71 (0.30–1.21)
Household income      
 <$25,000 215 (55%) 414.91 (128.05–2779.17) 6.66 (0.00–56.00) 2.71 (0.00–30.01) 0.68 (0.35–1.34)
 $25,000–$49,999 54 (14%) 426.39 (162.05–855.61) 6.25 (0.00–173.86) 3.20 (0.00–218.44) 0.72 (0.30–1.54)
 $50,000–$100,000 73 (18%) 500.13 (143.07–3664.91) 9.92 (0.00–76.90) 4.67 (0.00–179.19) 0.73 (0.43–1.19)
 >$100,000 50 (13%) 507.86 (148.62–1600.50) 11.32 (1.34–63.59) 5.52 (0.79–186.65) 0.68 (0.44–1.10)
Education      
 College graduate 145 (29%) 508.50 (148.62–3664.91) 9.15 (0.00–173.86) 4.60 (0.00–218.44) 0.70 (0.30–1.21)
 High school/GED 108 (22%) 381.84 (56.13–1038.75) 6.02 (0.00–54.90) 2.63 (0.00–179.19) 0.70 (0.40–1.14)
 Less than high school 166 (34%) 437.94 (93.47–2779.17) 6.78 (0.00–35.12) 2.74 (0.00–30.01) 0.68 (0.33–1.34)
 Some college 75 (15%) 415.24 (195.26–1600.50) 7.08 (0.00–56.00) 3.18 (0.00–119.67) 0.72 (0.48–1.54)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)      
 18.5–24.99 195 (41%) 482.78 (93.47–2779.17) 8.35 (0.00–173.86) 3.95 (0.00–218.44) 0.70 (0.40–1.22)
 25–29.99 149 (31%) 436.88 (140.80–3664.91) 6.92 (0.41–52.23) 2.75 (0.00–130.60) 0.69 (0.30–1.34)
 >29.99 135 (28%) 392.29 (56.13–1570.18) 5.85 (0.00–39.70) 2.78 (0.00–36.57) 0.71 (0.40–1.54)
Smoking status      
 No smoking 358 (74%) 450.11 (93.47–2779.17) 7.91 (0.00–173.86) 3.31 (0.00–218.44) 0.70 (0.30–1.34)
 Smoking prior to pregnancy 49 (10%) 433.03 (195.26–3664.91) 7.71 (0.00–70.22) 3.42 (0.00–129.48) 0.65 (0.44–1.04)
 Smoking during pregnancy 79 (16%) 447.62 (56.13–1570.18) 5.27 (0.35–39.70) 2.74 (0.30–130.60) 0.71 (0.40–1.54)
Folic acid supplementation      
 Yes 433 (89%) 441.19 (56.13–2779.17) 7.04 (0.00–76.90) 3.08 (0.00–186.65) 0.70 (0.30–1.54)
 No 52 (11%) 461.59 (143.07–3664.91) 9.87 (2.34–173.86) 3.49 (0.00–218.44) 0.69 (0.45–1.19)
Gestational diabetes      
 No 461 (94%) 447.62 (56.13–3664.91) 7.35 (0.00–173.86) 3.10 (0.00–218.44) 0.69 (0.30–1.54)
 Yes 30 (6%) 415.23 (195.26–841.23) 9.07 (1.43–33.29) 3.41 (0.93–36.57) 0.72 (0.53–1.07)
Gestational age at blood draw      
 1st trimester 316 (64%) 455.71 (56.13–3664.91) 8.85 (0.00–173.86) 3.51 (0.00–218.44) 0.71 (0.30–1.54)
 2nd trimester 166 (33%) 415.23 (109.44–2779.17) 5.77 (0.00–32.19) 2.70 (0.00–36.57) 0.66 (0.40–1.34)
 3rd trimester 15 (3%) 301.80 (216.96–759.84) 3.06 (0.35–11.64) 2.16 (0.00–30.01) 0.62 (0.44–1.03)
Infant sex      
 Male 248 (50%) 444.75 (109.44–3664.91) 7.33 (0.00–76.90) 3.25 (0.00–179.19) 0.70 (0.33–1.19)
 Female 249 (50%) 447.77 (56.13–2779.17) 7.54 (0.00–173.86) 3.18 (0.00–218.44) 0.69 (0.30–1.54)
  1. B 12 vitamin B12, PLP pyridoxal phosphate, PA 4-pyridoxic acid, Hcy homocysteine