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Table 5 Associations of childhood age acceleration based on the skin and blood clock with cardiovascular outcomes in children aged 10 years (main model)a

From: Epigenetic age acceleration and cardiovascular outcomes in school-age children: The Generation R Study

   Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure Common carotid artery intima-media thickness Common carotid artery distensibility
Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value
Six years (n = 470) n = 468 n = 468 n = 452 n = 412
Raw − 0.020 (− 0.15, 0.11) 0.77 0.033 (− 0.10, 0.17) 0.64 − 0.015 (− 0.15, 0.12) 0.83 − 0.001 (− 0.14, 0.14) 0.99
Residual − 0.024 (− 0.16, 0.11) 0.73 0.045 (− 0.09, 0.18) 0.52 0.001 (− 0.14, 0.14) 0.99 − 0.009 (− 0.15, 0.13) 0.90
Ten years (n = 449) n = 448 n = 448 n = 432 n = 375
Raw 0.032 (− 0.06, 0.12) 0.49 0.034 (− 0.06, 0.13) 0.46 − 0.018 (− 0.11, 0.07) 0.70 − 0.034 (− 0.14, 0.07) 0.51
Residual 0.032 (− 0.06, 0.12) 0.49 0.034 (− 0.06, 0.13) 0.46 − 0.018 (− 0.11, 0.07) 0.70 − 0.034 (− 0.14, 0.07) 0.51
  1. Values represent regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) and reflect the difference in cardiovascular outcome in SDS per change in raw and residual age acceleration (in weeks). Shown results are based on the main models which were adjusted for child sex, batch effects (by including plate number), child age at outcome measurement, cell types and maternal confounders (age, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index and folic acid supplementation and smoking during pregnancy)
  2. CI, confidence interval; SDS, standard deviation score
  3. aRaw age acceleration was obtained by subtracting the clinical estimate of age from DNA methylation age. Residual age acceleration was calculated from the residuals from a regression model of DNA methylation age on clinical age. In childhood, the correlation between raw and residual age acceleration was almost perfect (r = 0.996 and r = 0.999 for 6 and 10 years, respectively)