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Table 3 Associations of gestational age acceleration by the epigenetic clock of Bohlin with cardiovascular outcomes in children aged 10 years (main model)a,b

From: Epigenetic age acceleration and cardiovascular outcomes in school-age children: The Generation R Study

  Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure Common carotid artery intima-media thickness Common carotid artery distensibility
Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value Difference (95% CI) in SDS P value
Full population (n = 1104) n = 1097   n = 1098   n = 1060   n = 943  
 Raw 0.041 (− 0.02, 0.11) 0.21 0.021 (− 0.05, 0.09) 0.54 0.002 (− 0.06, 0.07) 0.96 0.001 (− 0.07, 0.07) 0.97
 Residual − 0.030 (− 0.14, 0.08) 0.60 0.011 (− 0.10, 0.12) 0.82 0.037 (− 0.07, 0.15) 0.52 0.068 (− 0.05, 0.19) 0.26
Subgroup: optimal pregnancy dating (n = 295) n = 293   n = 293   n = 280   n = 255  
 Raw 0.049 (− 0.09, 0.19) 0.49 0.026 (− 0.11, 0.17) 0.72 0.073 (− 0.06, 0.21) 0.29 − 0.054 (− 0.20, 0.09) 0.47
 Residual − 0.161 (− 0.40, 0.08) 0.18 − 0.032 (− 0.27, 0.21) 0.79 0.146 (− 0.09, 0.38) 0.22 0.174 (− 0.07, 0.42) 0.16
  1. Values represent regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) and reflect the difference in cardiovascular outcome in SDS per change in raw and residual gestational age acceleration (in weeks) at birth. Shown results are based on the main model which was adjusted for child sex, batch effects in DNA methylation data (by including sample plate number), child age at outcome measurement, cell types and maternal confounders (age, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index and folic acid supplementation and smoking during pregnancy)
  2. CI, confidence interval; SDS, standard deviation score
  3. aFor the analyses based on Bohlin’s epigenetic clock, we excluded 11 of the 1115 included newborns with missing values for some of the required CpGs, leaving 1104 children for analysis in the full population. The subgroup included children born to mothers with optimal pregnancy dating based on a regular menstrual cycle and gestational age determined by last menstrual period. For the analyses based on Bohlin’s epigenetic clock, we excluded 2 of 297 included newborns with missing values for some of the required CpGs, leaving 295 children for analysis
  4. bRaw gestational age acceleration was obtained by subtracting the clinical estimate of gestational age from DNA methylation gestational age. Residual gestational age acceleration was calculated from the residuals from a regression model of DNA methylation gestational age on clinical gestational age