Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline characteristics and acute outcomes of patients with DNA methylation analyzed on the last PICU-day

From: Differential DNA methylation by early versus late parenteral nutrition in the PICU: a biological basis for its impact on emotional and behavioral problems documented 4 years later

Characteristic Tested post-PICU population
Early-PN
N = 192
Late-PN
N = 211
P valuef
Infant (age < 1 year) at randomization 71 (37.0%) 91 (43.1%) 0.20
STRONGkids risk level a    0.19
 Medium 184 (95.8%) 196 (92.9%)  
 High 8 (4.2%) 15 (7.1%)  
PeLOD score, first 24 h in PICU b 23.7 (10.3) 24.1 (10.4) 0.62
PIM3 score c − 3.6 (1.3) − 3.7 (1.1) 0.65
PIM3 probability of death—%d 6.1 (10.9) 4.5 (8.0) 0.65
Diagnostic category    0.44
 Surgical    
  Abdominal 7 (3.7%) 6 (2.8%)  
  Burns 1 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%)  
  Cardiac 109 (56.8%) 123 (58.3%)  
  Neurosurgery-traumatic brain injury 17 (8.9%) 19 (9.0%)  
  Thoracic 9 (4.7%) 11 (5.2%)  
  Transplantation 0 (0.0%) 4 (1.9%)  
  Orthopedic surgery-trauma 10 (5.2%) 5 (2.4%)  
  Other 5 (2.6%) 8 (3.8%)  
 Medical    
  Cardiac 5 (3.7%) 5 (2.4%)  
  Gastrointestinal–hepatic 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.5%)  
  Oncologic–hematologic 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.0%)  
  Neurologic 13 (6.8%) 10 (4.7%)  
  Respiratory 8 (4.2%) 8 (3.8%)  
  Other 7 (3.7%) 9 (4.3%)  
Malignancy 14 (7.3%) 12 (5.7%) 0.51
Diabetes 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.99
Syndromee 15 (7.8%) 23 (10.9%) 0.28
Known parental smoking between birth and PICU admission 31 (16.1%) 42 (19.9%) 0.41
Duration of stay in the PICU—days 5.6 (11.7) 3.6 (3.5) 0.37
Patients who acquired a new infection in PICU 23 (12.0%) 9 (4.3%) 0.003
Duration of mechanical ventilatory support—days 3.1 (5.7) 2.2 (2.6) 0.66
Number of days with hypoglycemia < 40 mg/dl—days 0.1 (0.6) 0.2 (0.5) 0.11
  1. Data are n (%) or mean (SD)
  2. BMI body mass index, PeLOD pediatric logistic organ dysfunction score, PICU pediatric intensive care unit, PIM3 pediatric index of mortality 3 score, PN parenteral nutrition, SD standard deviation
  3. aScores on the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) range from 0 to 5, with a score of 0 indicating a low risk of malnutrition, a score of 1–3 indicating medium risk, and a score of 4–5 indicating high risk [8]
  4. bPediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PeLOD) scores range from 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating more severe illness [9]
  5. cPediatric Index of Mortality 3 (PIM3) scores, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of mortality [10]
  6. dPediatric Index of Mortality 3 (PIM3) probability of death, ranging from 0 to 100%, with higher percentages indicating a higher probability of death in PICU
  7. eA pre-randomization syndrome or illness a priori defined as affecting or possibly affecting neurocognitive development (Additional file 2)
  8. fP values were calculated with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for continuous data, and Chi square tests for proportions