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Table 1 Demographics of patients with DNA methylation analyzed on the last day of PICU stay

From: Differential DNA methylation by early versus late parenteral nutrition in the PICU: a biological basis for its impact on emotional and behavioral problems documented 4 years later

Demographics Tested post-PICU population
Early-PN
N = 192
Late-PN
N = 211
P valued
Age at 4-year follow-up—year 7.6 (4.2) 7.5 (4.1) 0.74
Sex    
 Male 111 (57.8%) 125 (59.2%) 0.77
 Female 81 (42.2%) 86 (40.8%)  
Known non-Caucasian racea 13 (6.8%) 7 (3.3%) 0.10
Known non-European origina 41 (21.4%) 30 (14.2%) 0.06
Known not exclusive Dutch or English language 49 (25.5%) 49 (23.2%) 0.59
Socioeconomic status    
 Educational level parents/caregiversb    0.60
 Educational level 1 6 (3.1%) 11 (5.2%)  
 Educational level 1.5 17 (8.9%) 12 (5.7%)  
 Educational level 2 43 (22.4%) 53 (25.1%)  
 Educational level 2.5 27 (14.1%) 34 (16.1%)  
 Educational level 3 55 (28.7%) 60 (28.4%)  
 Educational level unknown 44 (22.9%) 41 (19.4%)  
Occupational level parents/caregiversc    0.10
 Occupational level 1 0 (0.0%) 5 (2.4%)  
 Occupational level 1.5 18 (9.4%) 27 (12.8%)  
 Occupational level 2 33 (17.2%) 35 (16.6%)  
 Occupational level 2.5 19 (9.9%) 16 (7.6%)  
 Occupational level 3 34 (17.7%) 45 (21.3%)  
 Occupational level 3.5 14 (7.3%) 14 (6.6%)  
 Occupational level 4 31 (16.2%) 37 (17.5%)  
 Occupational level unknown 43 (22.4%) 32 (15.2%)  
  1. Data are n (%) or mean (SD)
  2. PICU pediatric intensive care unit, PN parenteral nutrition, SD standard deviation
  3. aParticipants were classified according to race and geographical origin by the investigators. These classifications were performed to capture ethnical and regional differences in the frequency of consanguinity, which may adversely affect cognitive performance [7]
  4. bThe education level is described in Additional file 2
  5. cThe occupation level is described in Additional file 2
  6. dP values were calculated with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for continuous data, and Chi square tests for proportions