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Table 1 Example of some surface marker of CSC in different human cancers [27, 33,34,35]

From: Current understanding of epigenetics mechanism as a novel target in reducing cancer stem cells resistance

Cancer Gender Marker Stemness-associated markers References
Head and neck HNC is more common in men by twofold–fivefold compared to women CD44, CD271 The highest levels of CD44 were observed in patients with advanced stages of disease as compared to a healthy control group
Using both CD44 and CD271 allowed the isolation of CSCs from HNSCC
[36,37,38,39,40,41]
Breast Breast cancer is so common in women and—less than 1% of breast cancers occur in men ALDH1, CD44, CD133, CD24 ALDH1+CD44+/CD24−/low cells demonstrated the strongest stem-like properties ALDH1 marker is a good predictive marker for breast cancer
CD133 expression was decreased in tumors with larger tumor size, higher stage and lymphovascular invasion
CD133 expression was correlated with positive HER2 status
[42,43,44,45,46]
Prostate cancer stem cell Not found CD44, CD 133 CD133+ cells were demonstrated to be able to possess a high in vitro proliferative potential [47]
Ovarian Not found CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24 CD44 is one the potential marker of ovarian cancer
CD 133 is one of the most commonly reported ovarian CSC surface markers
CD24 is associated with tumor formation, metastasis, poor prognosis, chemoresistance, and recurrence of disease
[48, 49]
Colon Higher colon cancer age-adjusted incidence among men than women EpCAM, CD44, CD29, CD24, CD133, CD166 CD133 is considered a specific marker of primary colorectal CSCs
CD166 can be considered together with other markers, such as CD44, CD24, CD29 and CD26
[50,51,52,53]
Renal cancer stem cells Renal cell carcinoma occurrence 2 to 3 times higher in men than in women CD105, ALDH1, OCT4, CD133 CD44−CD105− displaying stem-like phenotype [54,55,56]
Hematological and leukemic stem cells Females were slightly more affected compared with males CD19, CD34, CD26, CD38, CD33+ Lack of CD34 or high CD38 expression is associated with favorable prognosis [57,58,59]
Bone marrow (BM) Gender differences was not statistically significant CD10, CD19 and CD34 BM case is CD19+ CD10+ B cell precursors and the percentage of CD34+ was also higher than normal case. Commonly CD10+ is detected, too [60, 61]
Brain Glioblastoma incidence is 60 percent higher in males than in females CD15, CD90, CD133 CD15 exhibited stable expression in long-term cultured tumor spheres, whereas CD133 expression decreased significantly in late passages
CD15 can be used as a marker of stem-like cells derived from brain tumors in all stages
[62, 63]
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hepatocellular carcinoma was more aggressive in male EpCAM, CD133, CD44, CD90, CD133 EpCAM or CD133 has been used commonly as the tumor initiating cells marker in hepatocellular carcinoma
CD90 may be considered to be a marker for invasion, migration, and metastasis
[64,65,66]
Melanoma stem cells The majority of people who develop melanoma are white men over age 55 CD271, CD20, CD271 associated with metastasis and maintains long-term tumor growth [67, 67]
Endometrial Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer in women ALDH1, CD133 ALDH cells demonstrated greater endometrial cancer stem cell activity than CD133 cells and had increased expression of stem cell and epithelial–mesenchymal transition gene [69]
Lung Men develop lung cancer more often than women CD44, CD166, CD133 Increased expression of CD44 was significantly correlated with higher grade tumors
The expression of the adhesion molecule CD166 in primary lung cancer is associated with smaller tumors with no lymph node metastasis
CD166 population shows higher in vivo tumor initiating capacity in comparison to CD133+, CD44+, and EpCAM+ cells isolated from the same cells
[70,71,72]