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Table 1 Demographics and baseline characteristics of COVID-19 and non-Covid 19 in ICU and non-ICU setting and healthy controls

From: Blood DNA methylation and COVID-19 outcomes

Variables COVID-19 Non-COVID-19 Healthy
Total
n = 102
non-ICU
n = 51
ICU
n = 51
Total
n = 26
non-ICU
n = 10
ICU
n = 16
Total
n = 39
Days admitted pre-enrollment (iqr)* 3.37 (1–5) 2.78 (1–3) 3.96 (1–6) 0.97 (1–1) 0.9 (0.8–1) 0.94 (1–1) N/A
Sex—n (%)
Male 64 (62.7%) 30 (58.8%) 34 (66.7%) 13 (50%) 4 (40%) 9 (56%) 18 (46%)
Female 38 (37.3%) 21 (41.2%) 17 (33.3%) 13 (50%) 6 (60%) 7 (44%) 21 (54%)
Age-year
Mean (IQR)+ 61.3 (50.0–74.3) 59.7 (49.0–80.0) 62.9 (55.0–73.0) 63.8 (52.3–76.8) 60.4 (47.3–74.0) 66 (55.3–80.3) 75.8 (71.9–78.8)
Etnicity—n (%)
White*+ 46 (45.1%) 28 (54.9%) 18 (35.3%) 21 (80.8%) 8 (80%) 13 (81.2%) 35 (89.7%)
Black 11 (10.8%) 5 (9.8%) 6 (11.8%) 4 (15.4%) 2 (20%) 2 (12.5%) 4 (10.3%)
Asian*+ 2 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 2 (3.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Hispanic*+ 21 (20.6%) 7 (13.7%) 14 (27.5%) 1 (3.8%) 0 (0%) 1 (6.3%) 0 (0%)
Other*+ 22 (21.6%) 11 (21.6%) 11 (21.6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
BMI, kg/m2 mean (IQR) 30.39 (25.30–32.24) 29.84 (26.09–32.37) 30.92 (24.50–32.05) 30.36 (26.53–33.10) 27.20 (23.68–30.38) 32.34 (26.98–37.67) 28.52 (24.15–30.40)
Severity indexes (IQR)
Charlson comorbidity index* 3.3 (1–5) 3.16 (1–5) 3.49 (2–5) 4.35 (2–6) 3.3 (1–5) 5 (3–7) N/A
APACHEII N/A N/A 21.6 (15–27) N/A N/A 20.6 (12–26) N/A
SOFA N/A N/A 8.2 (6–11) N/A N/A 8.6 (3–11) N/A
SAPSII N/A N/A 51.8 (45–62) N/A N/A 47.6 (33–65) N/A
Biomarkers (IQR)
Ferritin (ng/mL)* 938.9 (301.8–1203.8) 782.6 (206.0–934.5) 1076.9 (378.0–1294.0) 250.5 (80.5–382.5) 205.3 (58.0–411.0) 285.7 (92.0–438.5) N/A
C-Reactive protein (mg/L)* 140.9 (52.0–204.3) 120.6 (44.7–155.0) 158.9 (61.7–248.3) 73.8 (20.0–110.2) 34.7 (8.9–56.8) 99.8 (37.8–175.2) N/A
D-dimer (mg/L FEU) 11.7 (1.0–12.8) 2.3 (0.6–1.73) 18.6 (1.7–21.6) 5.3 (0.5–4.6) 5.2 (0.4–1.9) 5.5 (0.6–10.2) N/A
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 3.2 (0.2–1.8) 1.7 (0.2–1.0) 4.4 (0.3–2.3) 2.1 (0.2–0.7) 2.2 (0.1–3.4) 2.1 (0.3–1.21) N/A
Lactate (mmol/ L)* 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 1.2 (0.9–1.4) 1.3 (0.9–1.5) 2.1 (0.9–2.5) 1.2 (0.8–1.5) 2.53 (0.9–3.4) N/A
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)* 543.6 (413.0–667.0) 559.3 (420.0–703.0) 531.7 (391.5–663.0) 362.3 (257.3–550.0) 348.0 (256.75–441.5) 373 (257.3–572.0) N/A
Albumin (mg/L)* 2.9 (2.6–3.3) 3.2 (2.9–3.5) 2.7 (2.4–2.9) 3.4 (2.9–3.8) 3.8 (3.4–4.1) 3.19 (2.6–3.8) N/A
Hemogram (IQR)
White blood cells (K/uL) 10.8 (6.1–12.5) 7.1 (4.9–8.5) 14.4 (8.4–15.4) 12.7 (7.2–17.3) 8.3 (6.7–9.7) 15.4 (8.2–20.9) N/A
Hemoglobin (g/dL)* 11.2 (9.7–12.6) 11.6 (10.2–13.0) 10.7 (9.4–12.1) 12.4 (9.9–14.7) 12.8 (10.45–14.85) 12.3 (9.6–14.5) N/A
Mean corpuscular volume (fL)* 87.1 (84.5–93.7) 88.0 (85.6–94.2) 86.2 (82.5–93.0) 92.3 (88.6–95.4) 91.2 (87.2–94.6) 93.0 (89.4–97.8) N/A
Platelet (K/uL)* 266.0 (192.5–320.5) 269.2 (209.0–334) 262.8 (187.0–317.0) 203.5 (151.8–247.8) 228.1 (163.5–278.0) 188.2 (127.5–229.5) N/A
Neutrophils (%) 76.2 (68.5–86.0) 69.7 (61.0–82.0) 82.8 (80.0–90.0) 77.7 (74.0–87.0) 73.1 (58.8–82.5) 80.5 (79.25–89.25) N/A
Lymphocytes (%) 13.8 (5.0–18.5) 19.4 (9.0–26.0) 8.3 (4.0–11.0) 12.7 (6.0–18.0) 16.9 (7.0–26.0) 10.1 (4.3–10.8) N/A
Monocytes (%) 7.1 (4.0–9.0) 8.8 (6.0–11.0) 5.5 (3.0–8.0) 8.0 (4.0–9.3) 7.7 (4.0–10.3) 8.2 (4.0–9.0) N/A
Eosinophils (%) 0.8 (0.0–1.0) 1.1 (0.0–1.0) 0.5 (0.0–1.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.25) 1.8 (0.0–3.3) 0.44 (0.0–1.0) N/A
Respiratory parameters
PaO2/FiO2 Ratio N/A N/A 161.6 (98–211) N/A N/A 149.4 (73–184) N/A
Positive-end expiratory pressure (cmH2O)* N/A N/A 10.8 (10–12) N/A N/A 6.6 (73–184) N/A
Inspiratory Plateau (cmH2O) N/A N/A 22.8 (19.7–25.3) N/A N/A 23.9 (19.8–28.8) N/A
Treatment—n (%)
Renal Replacement Therapy 12 (11.8%) 3 (5.9%) 9 (17.6%) 3 (11.5%) 0 (0%) 3 (18.8%) N/A
Hydroxychloroquine* 87 (85.3%) 43 (84.3%) 44 (86.3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) N/A
Antibiotics* 98 (96.1%) 47 (92.2%) 51 (100%) 16 (61.5%) 3 (30.0%) 13 (81.3%) N/A
Antiviral* 1 (0.98%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) N/A
IL6-Antagoinist* 4 (3.9%) 1 (1.9%) 2 (3.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) N/A
Convalescent Plasma* 26 (25.5%) 8 (15.7%) 18 (35.3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) N/A
Steroid* 46 (45.1%) 12 (23.5%) 34 (66.7%) 4 (15.4%) 1 (10.0%) 3 (18.8%) N/A
Therapeutic Anticoagulation 37 (36.3%) 2 (3.9%) 35 (68.6%) 8 (30.8%) 1 (10.0%) 7 (43.8%) N/A
Comorbidities—n (%)
Smoking history* 18 (17.6%) 11 (21.6%) 7 (13.7%) 10 (38.5%) 1 (10.0%) 9 (56.3%) 0 (0%)
Myocardial infarction* 11 (10.8%) 7 (13.7%) 4 (7.4%) 8 (30.8%) 2 (20.0%) 6 (37.5%) 0 (0%)
Congestive heart failure* 4 (3.9%) 2 (3.9%) 2 (3.9%) 4 (15.4%) 1 (10.0%) 3 (18.8%) 0 (0%)
Peripheral vascular disease* 1 (0.98%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 4 (15.4%) 1 (10.0%) 3 (18.8%) 0 (0%)
Cerebrovascular accident* 2 (1.9%) 1 (1.9%) 1 (1.9%) 3 (11.5%) 1 (10.0%) 2 (12.5%) 0 (0%)
Dementia 6 (5.9%) 4 (7.8%) 2 (3.9%) 1 (3.8%) 0 (0%) 1 (6.3%) 0 (0%)
Pulmonary disease 21 (20.6%) 10 (19.6%) 11 (21.5%) 4 (15.4%) 2 (20.0%) 2 (12.5%) 0 (0%)
Rheumatic disease 3 (2.9%) 3 (5.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Peptic ulcer disease 1 (0.98%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Diabetes mellitus 36 (35.3%) 15 (29.4%) 21 (41.2%) 6 (23.1%) 2 (20.0%) 4 (25.0%) 0 (0%)
Renal disease 11 (10.8%) 4 (7.8%) 7 (13.7%) 5 (19.2%) 2 (20.0%) 3 (18.8%) 0 (0%)
Cancer (solid) 4 (3.9%) 1 (1.9%) 3 (5.9%) 2 (7.7%) 0 (0%) 2 (12.5%) 0 (0%)
HIV/AIDS 2 (1.9%) 1 (1.9%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
  1. *Indicates a significant difference between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalized groups. +Indicates a significant difference between COVID-19 and healthy control groups