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Table 2 Schematic overview of the diagnostic analyses performed for determining molecular biomarkers according to WHO 2016 classification

From: DNA methylation profiling for molecular classification of adult diffuse lower-grade gliomas

Molecular diagnostic biomarkers Molecular techniques used in clinical diagnostics Methylation profiling
Tumor grade Histology
IDHa mutation status Immunohistochemistry G-CIMPc
Next-generation sequencing
Sanger sequencing
1p/19q codel.b Fluorescent in situ hybridization
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification
Copy number variation profiles
  1. aIDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase gene family
  2. bCodel., complete codeletion of 1p/19q chromosomal arms
  3. cGlioma CpG island methylator phenotype