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Table 3 Table of used terms, their statistical meaning, and description

From: Estimands in epigenome-wide association studies

Term Description and usage
Beta-values Describe the frequency of methylation at a given CpG site. Numeric values between 0 and 1. Biological interpretable.
Beta\(_i\) Single Beta-value i of all p Beta-values
M-values Standardized Beta-values. The standardization must be read as “logit” transformation. Numeric values from \(-\infty\) to \(+\infty\). No biological meaning.
M\(_i\) Single M-value i of all p M-values
Outcome Dependent variable Y of the regression models; here Beta-values or M-values
\(\Delta _{Beta}\) Difference in Beta-values
\(\Delta _{M}\) Difference in M-values
\(\beta _0\), \(\beta _1\) Coefficients of the regression model; \(\beta _0\) as the intercept and \(\beta _1\) as the effect estimate, i.e., the mean difference between the two groups Placebo and Treatment.