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Table 5 Bidirectional Mendelian randomization results of DNA methylation of CHRNA5 and smoking

From: Epigenome-wide association study of whole blood gene expression in Framingham Heart Study participants provides molecular insight into the potential role of CHRNA5 in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases

Exposure Outcome Instrumental variant Method beta se P value
cg19696491 Pack-years of smoking rs12915652 Wald ratio  − 1.50 0.21 4.94E − 13
cg22563815 Pack-years of smoking rs12915652 Wald ratio  − 1.32 0.18 4.94E − 13
Pack-years of smoking cg22563815 9 SNPs Inverse variance weighted  − 0.077 0.031 0.012
Pack-years of smoking cg19696491 9 SNPs Inverse variance weighted  − 0.067 0.026 0.01