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Table 3 Mendelian randomization results of lung cancer as the outcome using DNA methylation as the exposure

From: Epigenome-wide association study of whole blood gene expression in Framingham Heart Study participants provides molecular insight into the potential role of CHRNA5 in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases

Outcome Exposure Beta se P value Tissue origin
Lung cancer cg03234777  − 3.81 1.24 2.17E − 03 FHS Whole blood
Lung adenocarcinoma cg03234777  − 4.96 1.95 1.09E − 02 FHS Whole blood
Squamous cell lung cancer cg03234777  − 1.32 1.83 4.70E − 01 FHS Whole blood
Lung cancer cg19696491  − 5.28 0.77 5.05E − 12 FHS Whole blood
Lung adenocarcinoma cg19696491  − 5.65 1.16 1.18E − 06 FHS Whole blood
Squamous cell lung cancer cg19696491  − 3.93 1.21 1.11E − 03 FHS Whole blood
Lung cancer cg22563815  − 4.64 0.67 5.05E − 12 FHS Whole blood
Lung adenocarcinoma cg22563815  − 4.96 1.02 1.18E − 06 FHS Whole blood
Squamous cell lung cancer cg22563815  − 3.45 1.06 1.11E − 03 FHS Whole blood
Illnesses of father: lung cancer cg22563815  − 0.081 0.031 8.28E − 03 FHS Whole blood
Illnesses of father: lung cancer cg19696491  − 0.092 0.035 8.47E − 03 FHS Whole blood
Cancer code self-reported: lung cancer cg03234777  − 0.010 0.005 3.43E − 02 FHS Whole blood
Lung adenocarcinoma cg22563815  − 1.569 0.308 3.60E − 07 Lung tissue
Lung cancer cg22563815  − 1.456 0.203 7.04E − 13 Lung tissue
Squamous cell lung cancer cg22563815  − 1.127 0.319 4.04E − 04 Lung tissue
Lung adenocarcinoma cg19696491  − 2.051 0.416 8.35E − 07 Lung tissue
Lung cancer cg19696491  − 1.929 0.274 1.82E − 12 Lung tissue
Squamous cell lung cancer cg19696491  − 1.489 0.429 5.25E − 04 Lung tissue