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Table 3 Alterations in promoter methylation of selected genes in the blood and buccal mucosa from patients with periodontitis

From: Epigenetic regulation of inflammation in periodontitis: cellular mechanisms and therapeutic potential

Gene promoter Study authors Number of participants (healthy individuals:patients with periodontitis) Outcome
Blood
 TNF Kojima et al. [90] 30:30 (+ 30 patients with RA) ↑ (the same effect observed in RA, but in higher number of CpG sites)
Kobayashi et al. [79] 30:30
 IL6 Ishida et al. [91] 30:30 (+ 30 patients with RA) ↓ (the same effect observed in RA)
Kobayashi et al. [79] 30:30
 VDR Kurushima et al. [93] EWAS twin study, correlation with 2 different periodontal traits was analyzed separately in participants from TwinsUK registry (83% monozygotic and 10% dizygotic twins)
Gingival bleeding (528 participants: 259 negative vs 269 positive)
Tooth mobility (492 participants: 371 negative vs 121 positive)
There was an overlap of 474 participants between the analyses
 IL6ST
 TMCO6
 IL1RN
 CD44
 IL1B
 WHAMM
 CXCL1
Buccal mucosa
 IL8 Oliveira et al. [81] 41:70 (periodontitis group was divided into 30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) ↓ (no difference between smokers and non-smokers)
Andia et al. [94] 37:37 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 SOCS1 Baptista et al. [95] 30:30 (aggressive periodontitis patients)
 VDR Kurushima et al. [93] EWAS twin study, correlation with 2 Different periodontal traits were analyzed separately:
Gingival bleeding (43 participants: 18 negative vs 25 positive; 20 monozygotic twins, 16 dizygotic twins and 7 singletons)
Tooth mobility (41 participants: 29 negative vs 12 positive; 20 monozygotic twins, 12 dizygotic twins and 9 singletons)
There was an overlap of 40 participants between the analyses
 IL6ST
 TMCO6
 IL1RN
 CD44
 IL1B
 WHAMM
 CXCL1
 MMP13
 MED24
 CCR1
 MMP3
 TLR4
 IL6
 IL10
 SNORD124
  1. The numbers of participants in both groups (healthy individuals: patients with periodontitis) are shown in parentheses for each study. ↓—decreased methylation in patients with periodontitis compared to healthy controls; ↑—increased methylation in patients with periodontitis compared with healthy controls; ─—no difference between groups; ↕—differential methylation (effect direction not stated)