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Table 1 Effects of small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic regulators in cellular and animal models of periodontitis

From: Epigenetic regulation of inflammation in periodontitis: cellular mechanisms and therapeutic potential

Epigenetic target Compound(s) Effect
HDACs SAHA, ITF2357 Suppression of P. gingivalis- and cytokine-induced CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, MMP1, MMP3 and PTGS expression in gingival fibroblasts [53]
TSA, butyrate Upregulation of hBD2, IL-8 and CCL20 in GECs infected with P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum [35]
butyrate Suppression of LPS-induced TNF and IL-1β expression and ROS production in PDL cells [56]
TSA, apicidin Suppression of T. denticola-induced MMP2 activation in PDL cells [29]
TSA, butyrate Upregulation of osteoblast markers and induction of osteogenic differentiation of PDL cells [56, 57]
1179.4b Reduction of alveolar bone destruction in experimental periodontitis in mice [69]
TSA Reduction of inflammation and increased alveolar bone volume in experimental periodontitis in rats [68]
BET proteins I-BET151, JQ1 Suppression of inflammatory mediator production by GECs and gingival fibroblasts [65]
JQ1 Amelioration of inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in mice [70]
DNMTs AZA Induction of differentiation of gingival fibroblasts into osteoblasts and induction of ectopic bone formation in mice [120]
Suppression of T. denticola-induced MMP2 activation in PDL cells [29]
AZA, decitabine Modulation of inflammatory cytokine production by GECs [121]
RG108 Prevention of P. gingivalis-mediated impairment of GEC barrier function [114]