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Table 4 Mechanisms and clinical value of ncRNAs in keloid

From: Epigenetic modification mechanisms involved in keloid: current status and prospect

ncRNAs Expression Target gene Mechanism Clinical value Ref
miR-152-3p Upregulation FOXF1 MiR-152-3p regulated cell proliferation, invasion and ECM expression through targeting FOXF1 in KFs A novel and promising molecular target for keloid treatment [63]
miRNA-31 Upregulation HIF1AN MiRNA-31 regulated proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of keloid-derived fibroblasts by mediating HIF1AN/VEGF signaling pathway A promising therapeutic target in keloid scarring [64]
miR-181a Upregulation PHLPP2 MiR-181a targeted PHLPP2 to augment AKT signaling and regulate proliferation and apoptosis in human KFs A therapeutic target for treatment of keloids [65]
miR-21 Upregulation TGF-β1 TGF-β1 increased the promoting actions of miR-21 on the proliferation and migration of KFs while attenuating apoptosis A novel evidence on a theoretical basis for keloid treatment [66]
miR-21 Upregulation TGF-β1 TGF-β1 promoted KFs proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulation of miR-21 and PTENAKT signaling pathway A potential theoretical basis for clinical treatment of keloids [67]
miR-21-5p Upregulation PTEN MiR-21-5p increased the migration, invasion, sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, the phenotype of EMT, and cells stemness A novel therapeutic targets for keloids [68]
miR-21 Upregulation FasL MiR-21 regulated the apoptosis of KFs by caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway A therapeutic target for keloids [69]
miR-21 Upregulation Smad7 MiR-21 promoted Col1A1 and Col3A1 expression in keloid-derived fibroblast A potential target for keloid treatment [70]
miR-196a Downregulation COL1A1 and COL3A1 MiR-196a downregulation increased the collagens expression in KFs A new therapeutic target for keloid lesions [71]
miR-200b Downregulation N/A MiR-200b inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis of fibroblast via TGF-β1/a-SMA signaling A useful target for hypertrophic scarring management [72]
miR-29a Downregulation COL3A1 MiR-29a markedly reduced Type I and type III collagen mRNA and protein levels A novel marker for keloids [73]
miR-205-5p Downregulation VEGF MiR-205-5p overexpression induced the cell apoptosis, and inhibited the cell invasion and migration ability in KFs A potential therapy for prevention and treatment of keloids [74]
miR-141-3p Downregulation GAB1 MiR-141-3p inhibited fibroblast proliferation and migration in keloids A useful target for keloid management [75]
miR-188-5p Downregulation N/A MiR-1224-5p regulated proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion via the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in KFs A possible new therapeutic strategy for keloids [76]
miR-203 Downregulation EGR1 and FGF2 MiR-203 overexpression resulted in a significant decrease in proliferation, invasion, and ECM production in KFs A potential role in preventing and treating keloids [77]
miR-152-5p Downregulation Smad3 MiR-152-5p inhibited proliferation and migration and promotes apoptosis via the Erk1/2 and Akt pathways in human KFs A potential therapeutic target of keloids [78]
miR‑637 Downregulation Smad3 MiR-637 inhibited KFs proliferation and metastasis A promising therapeutic target in keloids [79]
miR-188-5p Downregulation N/A MiR-188-5p regulated proliferation and invasion via PI3K/Akt/MMP-2/9 signaling in keloids A potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for keloids [80]
miR-4417 Downregulation CyclinD1 MiR-4417 suppressed keloid fibrosis growth by inhibiting CyclinD1 A potential therapeutic target in keloids [81]
miR-1-3p and miR-214-5p Downregulation TM4SF1 MiR-1-3p and miR-214-5p inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and induced apoptosis in HKFs A potential targets in therapies for keloids [82]
lncRNA-H19 Upregulation miR-29a LncRNA-H19 affected the viability and apoptosis of KFs through COL1A1 signaling LncRNA-H19 was expected to allow for development of keloid-targeted treatments [102]
lncRNAHOXA11-AS Upregulation miR-124-3p High expression of HOXA11-AS essentially inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted fibroblast-induced angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway A novel target for keloid therapy [84]
lncRNA CAS1 Upregulation N/A LncRNA-CAS1 promoted calcium channel protein and type I collagen expression, and had a positive effect on cell migration in human KFs A new therapeutic target for keloids [85]
lncRNA-ATB Upregulation miR-200c Knockdown of lncRNA-ATB decreased autocrine secretion of TGF-β2 Potential biomarkers and targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for keloids [86]
circRNA_0008259 Downregulation N/A Overexpression of circRNA_0008259 inhibited type I and collagen expression Act as biomarkers of keloid [47]
circCOL3A1-859267 Downregulation miR-29c circCOL3A1-859267 regulated type I collagen expression in fibroblasts NA [87]
  1. The ncRNAs (miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs) are crucial in the coordination of KFs function and gene transcription, as well as in the pathogenesis and the prognostic value of keloid. ncRNAs non-coding RNAs, miRNAs microRNAs, lncRNAs long non-coding RNAs, circRNAs circular RNAs