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Table 1 Maternal and neonatal characteristics

From: Developmental programming in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells following fetal growth restriction

  Control (n = 8) FGR (n = 11) p value
Maternal characteristics
Age (years) 29 ± 4 32 ± 5 0.11
(Pre-pregnancy) BMI (kg/m3) 25 ± 4 25 ± 4 0.96
Preexisting hypertension, n (%) 0 (0) 2 (18) 0.49
Renal disease, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (9) 1.00
Preexistent diabetes, n (%) 1 (13) 0 (0) 0.42
Autoimmune disease, n (%) 1 (13) 1 (9) 1.00
Preeclampsia, n (%) 0 (0) 5 (46) 0.05
HELLP, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (9) 1.00
PPROM, n (%) 3 (38) 0 (0) 0.06
Smoking, n (%) 2 (25) 5 (46) 0.63
Maternal medication during pregnancy
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 0 (0) 6 (55) 0.02
Antenatal steroids, n (%) 8 (100) 9 (82) 0.49
MgSO4, n (%) 3 (43)# 4 (36) 1.00
Delivery
Caesarean section, n (%) 2 (25) 7 (64) 0.17
Apgar at 5 min 8 ± 2 8 ± 2 0.28
Neonatal characteristics
Sex, n (%male) 3 (38) 6 (55) 0.65
GA at birth (weeks) 31.1 ± 2.6 34.6 ± 3.5 0.02
Birth weight (gram) 1681 ± 416 1596 ± 459 0.69
Birth weight (percentile) 66 ± 20 6 ± 12  < 0.01
 - < 3rd percentile, n (%) 0 (0) 8 (73)  < 0.01
  1. Data expressed as mean ± SD or n (%), respectively, tested with independent t test or Fisher's exact test. # represents missing data, and therefore, the percentages are calculated based on the number of observations/measurements within the control group with 7 being the lowest number of patients in a group (maximum 13% missing data). Pre-existing hypertension, preeclampsia and HELLP were defined according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines [26]. GA: gestational age; HELLP: hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet syndrome; and PPROM: preterm premature rupture of membranes