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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects

From: The influences of DNA methylation and epigenetic clocks, on metabolic disease, in middle-aged Koreans

  Control (N = 213) MetS (N = 136) p value
Female (%) 108 (62.8) 64 (37.2) 0.579
Chronological age (years) 59.74 (8.21) 62.25 (8.49) < 0.007
Living area    <0.078
 Urban 59 140  
 Rural 104 46  
Smoke    0.636
 Never smoker 134 (62.9) 83 (61)  
 Former smoker 37 (17.4) 23 (16.9)  
 Current smoker 42 (19.7) 30 (22.1)  
Alcohol    
 Never drinker 106 (49.8) 62 (45.6) 0.824
 Non-regular 3 (1.4) 10 (7.4)  
 Regular drinker 104 (48.8) 64 (47.1)  
Education    0.155
 Elementary school or less 22 91  
 Middle school graduate 13 22  
 High school or higher 24 27  
Income (USD)    0.011
 < 1000 19 115  
 1000–2000 29 27  
 ≥ 2000 114 38  
Physical activity (MET/day) 90.40 (13.84) 91.49 (13.21) 0.555
 Waist (cm) 80.34 (7.77) 91.99 (6.98) < 0.001
 Hip (cm) 89.25 (4.92) 94.31 (5.50) < 0.001
 WHR 0.90 (0.07) 0.98 (0.06) < 0.001
 BMI (m2/kg) 22.94 (2.81) 26.46 (2.97) < 0.001
 SBP (mmHg) 117.03 (15.79) 124.18 (14.73) < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 74.79 (9.70) 77.49 (8.69) 0.007
 TG (mg/dl) 109.72 (99.99) 188.90 (154.71) < 0.001
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 109.60 (55.14) 140.54 (54.15) < 0.001
 HDL (mg/dl) 49.05 (11.45) 37.68 (7.80) < 0.001
MetS score    
 0 68 (31.9)   < 0.001
 1 68 (31.9)   
 2 77 (36.2)   
 3   62 (45.6)  
 4   52 (38.2)  
 5   22 (16.2)  
  1. Data are presented as n (%) for categorical and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. USD US dollars, MET metabolic equivalent, WHR waist-hip ratio, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG triglyceride, HDL high-density lipoprotein; for MetS score: number of components that meet the NCEP-ATP III criteria