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Table 2 Summary of linear regression models testing associations between pregnancy outcomes, gestational length and birthweight, from epigenetic age indices, controlling for demographics, gestational age at blood sample collection, and pre-pregnancy BMI

From: Epigenetic age and pregnancy outcomes: GrimAge acceleration is associated with shorter gestational length and lower birthweight

Outcome Predictor b SE β p
Gestational length Age acceleration residual − .041 .046 − .116 .384
  Senescent T cells − .050 .069 − .093 .474
  IEAA − .044 .046 − .123 .345
  EEAA .017 .049 .045 .735
  PEAA .005 .040 .018 .905
  GrimAgeAccel .172 .053 .398 .002
  DNAm PAI-1 2.17 × 10−4 7.2 × 10−5 .375 .004
  DNAm ADM .033 .011 .353 .003
  DNAm B2M − 4.02 × 10−6 2.0 × 10−5 − .207 .091
  DNAm cystatin C 2.10 × 105 8.0 × 105 .304 .012
  DNAm GDF − 1.69 × 104 .002 − .011 .930
  DNAm leptin − 6.24 × 10−5 1.1 × 10−4 − .071 .586
  DNAm smoking pack years − .044 .028 − .200 .125
  DNAm TIMP1 3.71 × 10−4 3.1 × 10−4 − .150 .234
  DNAm TL − .819 1.16 − .096 .482
Birthweight Age acceleration residual − 13.4 16.7 − .108 .428
  Senescent T cells .695 25.0 .004 .978
  IEAA − 15.6 16.7 − .124 .353
  EEAA − 11.4 17.8 − .088 .524
  PEAA − 12.6 14.3 − .134 .382
  GrimAgeAccel 71.9 18.5 .471 < .001
  DNAm PAI-1 .081 .026 .397 .003
  DNAm ADM 13.8 3.87 .413 .001
  DNAm B2M − .002 .001 − .223 .075
  DNAm Cystatin C .010 .003 .403 .001
  DNAm GDF − .346 .691 − .063 .618
  DNAm leptin .006 .041 .018 .894
  DNAm smoking pack years − 17.8 10.2 − .228 .086
  DNAm TIMP1 − .151 .111 − .173 .179
  DNAm TL 217 420 .072 .608
  1. All epigenetic age indices were adjusted for chronological age
  2. ADM adrenomedullin, B2M β2 Microglobulin, EEAA extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, IEAA intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, GDF growth and differentiation factor, GrimAgeAccel GrimAge acceleration, PAI-1 plasminogen activation inhibitor-1, PEAA phenotypic epigenetic age acceleration, TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TL telomere