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Table 1 Sample characteristics (n = 77)

From: Epigenetic age and pregnancy outcomes: GrimAge acceleration is associated with shorter gestational length and lower birthweight

Variable Mean ± SD or % (N) Range
Age (years) 33.1 ± 4.81 22.0–45.0
Marital status (married) 87% (65)  
Per Capita Household income ($1000) 52.5 ± 40.3 2.83–200
Education (years) 16.9 ± 2.90 12.0–26.0
Race/ethnicity
 White 49% (38)  
 Black 10% (8)  
 Latina 23% (18)  
 Asian 12% (9)  
 Multi-race 5% (4)  
Smoking (yes) 0% (0)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI 25.0 ± 5.82 16.8–36.4
Parity (primiparous) 61% (47)  
GA at first assessment (weeks) 15.6 ± 2.15 12.0–24.4
GA at birth (weeks) 39.4 ± 1.47 32.9–42.0
Birthweight (g) 3371 ± 507 1086–4624
Age acceleration residual .135 ± 3.79 − 9.03–12.6
Senescence T cells .643 ± 2.68 − 5.98–10.4
IEAA .252 ± 3.63 − .973–13.3
EEAA .702 ± 4.15 − 16.1–9.27
PEAA 32.5 ± 6.44 17.8–58.2
GrimAgeAccel .500 ± 3.17 − 5.59–11.3
DNAm PAI-1 19.8 ± 2176 − 5578–5777
DNAm ADM 1.17 ± 14.1 − 34.6–43.8
DNAm B2M 8541 ± 77,648 − 138,633–326,766
DNAm cystatin C 2728 ± 20,284 − 32,366–74,727
DNAm GDF 4.41 ± 84.3 − 118–527
DNAm leptin −55.2 ± 1584 − 3448–3296
DNAm TIMP1 135 ± 564 − 932–1632
DNAm smoking pack years .076 ± 6.80 − 11.3–27.4
DNAm TL − .008 ± .162 − .399–.424
  1. ADM adrenomedullin, B2M β2 Microglobulin, BMI body mass index, EEAA extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, IEAA intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, GA gestational age, GDF growth and differentiation factor, GrimAgeAccel GrimAge acceleration, PAI-1 plasminogen activation inhibitor-1, PEAA phenotypic epigenetic age acceleration, TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TL telomere