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Table 1 Clinicopathologic associations of PKMTs

From: Clinicopathologic significance of protein lysine methyltransferases in cancer

EZH2
Canonical histone modification: H3K27 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Breast cancer [4,5,6,7] High histologic grade
High proliferation index
Triple-negative histology
Advanced TNM stage
Presence of metastasis at diagnosis
Independent predictor of worse disease-specific survival
Non-small cell lung cancer [8,9,10] High histologic grade
Advanced TNM stage
Squamous cell histology
Independent predictor of worse overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma
Colorectal cancer [11,12,13,14,15] Advanced TNM stage
Increased invasion depth
Conflicting studies:
• Independent predictor of worse overall survival
• Independent predictor of improved overall survival
Endometrial cancer [6, 16, 17] Aggressive serous papillary and clear cell subtypes
High histologic grade
High nuclear grade
Advanced clinical FIGO stage
Independent predictor of worse overall and progression-free survival
Gastric cancer [18] No correlation data available Independent predictor of worse overall and progression-free survival
Prostate cancer [6, 19] Lymph node metastasis
Seminal vesicle invasion
Poorly differentiated tumors
Independent predictor of worse recurrence-free and overall survival
Ovarian cancer [20, 21] Advanced clinical stage
High histologic grade
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [22,23,24] High histologic grade
Advanced clinical stage
Tumor stage
Lymph node metastasis
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
EHMT2 (G9a)
Canonical histone modification: H3K9 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Non-small cell lung cancer [25, 26] No correlation data available Independent predictor of worse overall and recurrence-free survival in NSCLC
Gastric cancer [27] Advanced clinical stage
Lymph node metastasis
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Hepatocellular carcinoma [28] No correlation data available Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Ovarian cancer [29] Advanced clinical stage
High histologic grade
Serous histology
No association
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [30] No correlation data available Predictor of worse overall survival (no multivariate analysis was conducted to determine if EHMT2 is an independent prognostic factor)
SMYD2
Canonical histone modification: H3K4/H3K36 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Gastric cancer [31] Lymph node metastasis
Tumor size
Depth of tumor invasion
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Hepatocellular carcinoma [32] Vascular invasion
Tumor size
Advanced clinical stage
Poorly differentiated tumors
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
SMYD3
Canonical histone modification: H3K4/H4K5/H4K20 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Hepatocellular carcinoma [33] Tumor size Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Prostate cancer [34] No correlation data available Independent predictor of worse overall survival
NSD2
Canonical histone modification: H3K36 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Endometrial cancer [35] Lymphovascular invasion
High histologic grade
Lymph node metastasis
Depth of myometrial invasion
Advanced FIGO clinical stage
Independent predictor of worse overall and progression-free survival
Prostate cancer [36] No correlation data available Independent predictor of biochemical recurrence
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [37] Poorly differentiated tumors No correlation data available
NSD3
Canonical histone modification: H3K36 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [38] Poorly differentiated tumors No association
SETD7
Canonical histone modification: H3K4 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Breast cancer [39] Advanced nodal stage Independent predictor of worse disease-free and overall survival in all breast cancer subtypes
Hepatocellular carcinoma [40] Tumor size
High histologic grade
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
SETD1A
Canonical histone modification: H3K4 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Breast cancer [41] Advanced TNM stage
Vascular invasion
Metastasis
Independent predictor of worse overall survival in TNBC
SETDB1
Canonical histone modification: H3K9 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Colorectal cancer [42, 43] High histologic grade
Advanced TNM stage
Independent predictor of worse overall survival
Hepatocellular carcinoma [44, 45] Progressively increasing SETDB1 protein levels from normal liver to chronic hepatitis to HCC No correlation data available
EHMT1
Canonical histone modification: H3K9 methylation
Cancer type Correlation with clinicopathologic features Effect on overall survival
Gastric cancer [46] Tumor stage
Lymph node metastasis
No correlation data available
  1. Higher expression levels of the above PKMTs are associated with the above described adverse clinicopathologic features unless stated otherwise