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Table 2 Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis results, assessing epigenetic mediation between smoking status and ~ 3-year survival at the SPEG gene (chromosome 2:220325443-220326041), GFI1 gene (chromosome 1:92946132-92947588) and PPT2 gene (chromosome 6:32120895-32120907). Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and MR Egger results, adjusted for genetic correlation between mQTLs, are reported as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals

From: Identifying epigenetic biomarkers of established prognostic factors and survival in a clinical cohort of individuals with oropharyngeal cancer

Region (gene) MR method SNPs HR 95% CI P
All DMR CpGs
 Chr2:220325443-220326041 (SPEG) IVW 17 1.28 1.14 to 1.43 2.12 × 10−05
 Chr2:220325443-220326041 (SPEG) MR Egger 17 1.28 1.18 to 1.38 4.04 × 10−10
 Chr1:92946132-92947588 (GFI1) IVW 8 0.74 0.60 to 0.93 7.9 × 10−03
 Chr1:92946132-92947588 (GFI1) MR Egger 8 2.65 0.77 to 9.12 0.12
 Chr6:32120895-32120907 (PPT2) IVW 8 0.82 0.52 to 1.30 0.40
 Chr6:32120895-32120907 (PPT2) MR Egger 8 1.68 0.27 to 10.38 0.58
Sentinel CpG only
 cg06084174 (SPEG) IVW 3 1.14 0.90 to 1.45 0.29
 cg06338710 (GFI1) Wald ratio 1 0.93 0.47 to 1.85 0.84
 cg17113856 (PPT2) IVW 2 0.67 0.37 to 1.22 0.19